Insets: representative histograms of IL-4-producing CD3+cells in LPMC isolated

Insets: representative histograms of IL-4-producing CD3+cells in LPMC isolated from 1 CD patient with noDistinct Cytokine Patterns in CDendoscopic recurrence (i0), 1 CD patient with endoscopic recurrence (i4), 1 CD patient with established/late lesions and 1 normal control. Staining with a control IgG is also shown. Numbers above lines indicate the percentages of positive cells. C . Ratio between the percentages of IFN-cproducing (C) or IL-17A-producing (D) CD3+LPMC and IL-4-producing CD3+ LPMC isolated from CD patients with no endoscopic recurrence (i0 1), CD patients with endoscopic recurrence (i2 4), CD patients with established/late lesions and normal controls. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054562.gileum with endoscopic recurrence and established lesions (Fig. 6C and Tables 1?).DiscussionThis study was undertaken to characterize the mucosal pattern of effector cytokines in CD at different stages of the disease. To this end, we considered as “initial lesions” those developing in the neoterminal ileum of patients after a curative ileo-colonic resection and “established lesions” those seen in patients with a long-history of disease requiring intestinal resection. More than one third of CD patients did not show endoscopic signs of recurrence within the time-frame of 1 year after the ileocolonic resection, in line with previously published studies. [23,29?0] Immunofluorescence analysis of biopsies taken from this subgroup of patients showed a marked infiltration of the mucosa with both CD3+ and CD68+ cells, reinforcing the notion that T cells and macrophages drive inflammatory events necessary for the development of mucosal lesions. [31?2]. AH252723 web Moreover, we found a distinct pattern of cytokines at this early stage of disease. In particular, the macroscopically unaffected neoterminal ileum contained high levels of IFN-c and IL-21, two cytokines which are produced by Th1 cells in humans. [5,24] These findings are consistent with the demonstration that the macroscopically unaffected neo-terminal ileum expressed high IL12, a strong inducer of IFN-c and IL-21 production in the gut. [6,33] In the same biopsies, we found a 1655472 slight increase in IL-17A and elevated levels of TNF-a, a cytokine involved in the positive regulation of IL-17A synthesis [28] and supposed to play a pathogenic role in 10457188 the recurrence after intestinal resection in CD. [34] In biopsies taken from areas with endoscopic lesions, expression of Th1 cytokines remained elevated and there was marked up-regulation of IL-17A and induction of IL-23 and IL-6, two cytokines which enhance IL-17A production. [26?7] A major strength of our study is that all patients who underwent ileocolonic resection were taking mesalamine only at the time ofbiopsy sampling. Thus we think it is fair to conclude that the different pattern of cytokines found in the neo-terminal ileum of CD patients with or without endoscopic lesions is not due to medical therapy. In samples taken from mucosal areas with established lesions there were elevated levels of IFN-c, IL-17-A, IL-4 and IL-5 as compared to normal controls. However, analysis of the cytokine expression at protein level by flow-cytometry revealed that the percentages of LPMC secreting IFN-c or IL-17A were markedly higher than the percentage of IL-4-producing cells, reinforcing the concept that, in CD, the tissue-damaging immune APO866 custom synthesis response is associated with a predominant synthesis of Th1/Th17 cell-type cytokines. [1?] A different Th1/Th17 cytokine ratio was ho.Insets: representative histograms of IL-4-producing CD3+cells in LPMC isolated from 1 CD patient with noDistinct Cytokine Patterns in CDendoscopic recurrence (i0), 1 CD patient with endoscopic recurrence (i4), 1 CD patient with established/late lesions and 1 normal control. Staining with a control IgG is also shown. Numbers above lines indicate the percentages of positive cells. C . Ratio between the percentages of IFN-cproducing (C) or IL-17A-producing (D) CD3+LPMC and IL-4-producing CD3+ LPMC isolated from CD patients with no endoscopic recurrence (i0 1), CD patients with endoscopic recurrence (i2 4), CD patients with established/late lesions and normal controls. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054562.gileum with endoscopic recurrence and established lesions (Fig. 6C and Tables 1?).DiscussionThis study was undertaken to characterize the mucosal pattern of effector cytokines in CD at different stages of the disease. To this end, we considered as “initial lesions” those developing in the neoterminal ileum of patients after a curative ileo-colonic resection and “established lesions” those seen in patients with a long-history of disease requiring intestinal resection. More than one third of CD patients did not show endoscopic signs of recurrence within the time-frame of 1 year after the ileocolonic resection, in line with previously published studies. [23,29?0] Immunofluorescence analysis of biopsies taken from this subgroup of patients showed a marked infiltration of the mucosa with both CD3+ and CD68+ cells, reinforcing the notion that T cells and macrophages drive inflammatory events necessary for the development of mucosal lesions. [31?2]. Moreover, we found a distinct pattern of cytokines at this early stage of disease. In particular, the macroscopically unaffected neoterminal ileum contained high levels of IFN-c and IL-21, two cytokines which are produced by Th1 cells in humans. [5,24] These findings are consistent with the demonstration that the macroscopically unaffected neo-terminal ileum expressed high IL12, a strong inducer of IFN-c and IL-21 production in the gut. [6,33] In the same biopsies, we found a 1655472 slight increase in IL-17A and elevated levels of TNF-a, a cytokine involved in the positive regulation of IL-17A synthesis [28] and supposed to play a pathogenic role in 10457188 the recurrence after intestinal resection in CD. [34] In biopsies taken from areas with endoscopic lesions, expression of Th1 cytokines remained elevated and there was marked up-regulation of IL-17A and induction of IL-23 and IL-6, two cytokines which enhance IL-17A production. [26?7] A major strength of our study is that all patients who underwent ileocolonic resection were taking mesalamine only at the time ofbiopsy sampling. Thus we think it is fair to conclude that the different pattern of cytokines found in the neo-terminal ileum of CD patients with or without endoscopic lesions is not due to medical therapy. In samples taken from mucosal areas with established lesions there were elevated levels of IFN-c, IL-17-A, IL-4 and IL-5 as compared to normal controls. However, analysis of the cytokine expression at protein level by flow-cytometry revealed that the percentages of LPMC secreting IFN-c or IL-17A were markedly higher than the percentage of IL-4-producing cells, reinforcing the concept that, in CD, the tissue-damaging immune response is associated with a predominant synthesis of Th1/Th17 cell-type cytokines. [1?] A different Th1/Th17 cytokine ratio was ho.

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