Onal plasticity in the limbic system (amygdala and hippocampus) upon fear

Onal plasticity in the limbic system (amygdala and hippocampus) upon fear conditioning (FC) in a transgenic mouse model expressing human A30P mutant [6] aSYN under MedChemExpress LY317615 control of a CNS neuron predominant Thypromotor [13,14,15]. These animals show age-dependent decline of emotional learning concomitant with aSYN alterations in the amygdala [11,16]. Mice were FC trained and sacrificed within an hour for quantitative immunohistological examination of the neuronal plasticity marker c-Fos [17]. This method was also used to measure cognitive impairment in transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease [18,19]. In addition, we examined the neuronal activity responsive gene product, polo-like kinase 2 (Plk2) [20,21] since this enzyme is an important enzyme phosphorylating aSYN at the pathological site serine-129 (pSer129) [22,23]. As the (Thy1)-h[A30P]aSYN mice aged and became impaired in FC behavior, they showed significantly reduced c-Fos and Plk2 induction compared to wild-type control mice, both in the amygdala and in the hippocampus. We attempt to correlate the age-dependent impairments in synaptic plasticity and cognitive behavior with the development of various forms of aSYN and pSer129 neuropathologies within the limbic system of (Thy1)-h[A30P]aSYN mice, including synaptic accumulations of apparently “normal” transgenic aSYN in the hippocampus. Distinct aSYN species may cause age-dependent impairments in synaptic plasticity during FC learning paradigms via multiple mechanisms, which might be relevant for the development of dementia in human patients.Impaired Synaptic Plasticity in Aging aSYNtg MedChemExpress Erastin MiceMaterials and Methods Ethics AgreementThe behavioral tests and brain dissections were in compliance with the authorization N10/08 licensed by the regional board (Regierungsprasidium) Tubingen and were performed according ??to the German law, Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory 1531364 Animals.Fear ConditioningAll behavioral tests were done with male mice. FC was conducted as described before [11,16]. Briefly animals were habituated one week before the FC training. In this period only the experimenter took care of the mice. Two to three days before the FC animals were involved in 1? handling sessions per day so that animals did not display any indication of anxiety before FC in a system from TSE (Bad Homburg, Germany). During the 6 min training session animals were exposed to either none or two 0.6 mA scrambled foot shocks for 1s, which was announced by a 20 s light/tone cue immediately prior to shock. Within 40?0 min after the training, half of the animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and dissected brains were fixed in 4 paraformaldehyde in phosphatebuffer (pH 7.4). The other half of the group was exposed 24h later for 3 min to the previous FC context. In this time exploratory behavior of each animal was recorded. After another 6 h animals were placed in a changed context, in which the clear Perspex walls of the test cage were replaced with black walls. A Perspex plate covered with woodchips was placed over the foot shock grids. In this new context the mice were exposed to the light/tone cue used in the training for 3 min, during which exploration was recorded. For both the context test as well as the cued test automated recordings, the explored area was represented as a virtual field consisting of 256 elements. The percentage of visited area out of the whole field was determined.Histological Staining ProceduresAnimals were sacrificed w.Onal plasticity in the limbic system (amygdala and hippocampus) upon fear conditioning (FC) in a transgenic mouse model expressing human A30P mutant [6] aSYN under control of a CNS neuron predominant Thypromotor [13,14,15]. These animals show age-dependent decline of emotional learning concomitant with aSYN alterations in the amygdala [11,16]. Mice were FC trained and sacrificed within an hour for quantitative immunohistological examination of the neuronal plasticity marker c-Fos [17]. This method was also used to measure cognitive impairment in transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease [18,19]. In addition, we examined the neuronal activity responsive gene product, polo-like kinase 2 (Plk2) [20,21] since this enzyme is an important enzyme phosphorylating aSYN at the pathological site serine-129 (pSer129) [22,23]. As the (Thy1)-h[A30P]aSYN mice aged and became impaired in FC behavior, they showed significantly reduced c-Fos and Plk2 induction compared to wild-type control mice, both in the amygdala and in the hippocampus. We attempt to correlate the age-dependent impairments in synaptic plasticity and cognitive behavior with the development of various forms of aSYN and pSer129 neuropathologies within the limbic system of (Thy1)-h[A30P]aSYN mice, including synaptic accumulations of apparently “normal” transgenic aSYN in the hippocampus. Distinct aSYN species may cause age-dependent impairments in synaptic plasticity during FC learning paradigms via multiple mechanisms, which might be relevant for the development of dementia in human patients.Impaired Synaptic Plasticity in Aging aSYNtg MiceMaterials and Methods Ethics AgreementThe behavioral tests and brain dissections were in compliance with the authorization N10/08 licensed by the regional board (Regierungsprasidium) Tubingen and were performed according ??to the German law, Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory 1531364 Animals.Fear ConditioningAll behavioral tests were done with male mice. FC was conducted as described before [11,16]. Briefly animals were habituated one week before the FC training. In this period only the experimenter took care of the mice. Two to three days before the FC animals were involved in 1? handling sessions per day so that animals did not display any indication of anxiety before FC in a system from TSE (Bad Homburg, Germany). During the 6 min training session animals were exposed to either none or two 0.6 mA scrambled foot shocks for 1s, which was announced by a 20 s light/tone cue immediately prior to shock. Within 40?0 min after the training, half of the animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and dissected brains were fixed in 4 paraformaldehyde in phosphatebuffer (pH 7.4). The other half of the group was exposed 24h later for 3 min to the previous FC context. In this time exploratory behavior of each animal was recorded. After another 6 h animals were placed in a changed context, in which the clear Perspex walls of the test cage were replaced with black walls. A Perspex plate covered with woodchips was placed over the foot shock grids. In this new context the mice were exposed to the light/tone cue used in the training for 3 min, during which exploration was recorded. For both the context test as well as the cued test automated recordings, the explored area was represented as a virtual field consisting of 256 elements. The percentage of visited area out of the whole field was determined.Histological Staining ProceduresAnimals were sacrificed w.

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