Tra-acyl LPS (purple) or Y. pestis tetra-acyl LPS (light blue). (A

Tra-acyl LPS (purple) or Y. pestis tetra-acyl LPS (light blue). (A) NF-kB translocation was analyzed by confocal microscopy in cells activated with different LPS for 15 min, 30 min, 1 h and 2 h. Cells were fixed and stained for NF-kB subunit p65/RelA (in red). The percentage of BMDM with translocated NF-kB into the nucleus was quantified (B). Data represent means 6 standard errors of at least 4 independent experiments, **p,0.01. (EPS)Figure S4 BMDC capacity to trigger Treg cell differentiation. BMDC stimulated with different LPS variants were incubated with OT-II Rag-22/2 T cells in the presence of the OVA, OVA257?64 peptide (0.06 mg/mL) with or without TGF-b. After 5 days of culture, T cells were analyzed for the expression of Foxp3 and of CD25. Numbers in outlined areas indicate percentage of cells. Results for hexa-acyl and tetra-acyl E. coli LPS are shown. Data similar to tetra-acyl E. coli LPS are observed while BMDC are stimulated with tetra-acyl Y. pestis LPS. Data are representative of 3 independent experiments. (EPS) Figure S5 Human IL-4 DC stimulation properties in the presence of E. coli LPS analogs and Y. pestis LPS. IL4 DC were stimulated for 72 h with medium, hexa-acyl E. coli LPS, tetra-acyl E. coli LPS, synthetic Lipid IVa and Y. pestis at 20 ng/ml. Cell culture supernatants were kept for cytokine measurement (IL-6, IL-10 and TNFa) by Luminex (A). Surface expression of HLA-DR, CD80 and CD86 was analyzed by flow cytometry (B) Experiments were performed on 4 different donors. Data for one representative donor are shown. (TIF)Supporting InformationFigure S1 LPS VRT-831509 site structure effect on mouse BMDM activation. Mouse BMDM were incubated with medium, E. coli hexa-acyl LPS (dark blue), E. coli tetra-acyl LPS (purple) or Y. pestis tetra-acyl LPS (light blue). Secretion levels of TNF-a were determined by ELISA after 8 h and 24 h of cell activation. Data represent means 6 standard errors of at least 4 independent experiments. **p,0.01. (EPS)Tetra-acyl LPS induce a TLR4-dependent DC activation. BMDC from wild type and Tlr42/2 mice (A) or Tlr22/2 mice (B) were stimulated for 8 h and 24 h with medium (grey) or E. coli hexa-acyl LPS (dark blue), E. coli tetra-acyl LPS (purple) or Y. pestis tetra-acyl LPS (light blue) or Pam2CSK4 (brown). TNF-a secretion was measured by ELISA. Data represent means 6 standard errors of at least 3 independent experiments, ***p,0.001, **p,0.01. (EPS)Figure SAcknowledgmentsWe thank Dr. Hugues Lelouard for critical advice on the manuscript.Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: JPG AM SO. Performed the experiments: AM YO CD LG. Analyzed the data: JPG AM YO CD SO IM LG. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: IM SO. Wrote the paper: JPG AM SO IM.
Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) is an important anaplerotic enzyme that catalyzes the ATP-driven carboxylation of pyruvate to oxaloaceate. This reaction is 24786787 not only the first important committed step of hepatic gluconeogenesis but also crucial for cataplerosis as Krebs cycle intermediates are withdrawn for various biosynthetic purposes including de novo fatty acid synthesis in liver and adipose tissue, PF-04554878 web glyceroneogenesis in adipose tissue and glutamate production in astrocytes (for review see [1?]). PC also plays an important role in normal glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in pancreatic b-cells [4?]. Dysregulation of PC expression in liver, adipose tissue or islets is also associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes [7?1]. PC deficiency is a.Tra-acyl LPS (purple) or Y. pestis tetra-acyl LPS (light blue). (A) NF-kB translocation was analyzed by confocal microscopy in cells activated with different LPS for 15 min, 30 min, 1 h and 2 h. Cells were fixed and stained for NF-kB subunit p65/RelA (in red). The percentage of BMDM with translocated NF-kB into the nucleus was quantified (B). Data represent means 6 standard errors of at least 4 independent experiments, **p,0.01. (EPS)Figure S4 BMDC capacity to trigger Treg cell differentiation. BMDC stimulated with different LPS variants were incubated with OT-II Rag-22/2 T cells in the presence of the OVA, OVA257?64 peptide (0.06 mg/mL) with or without TGF-b. After 5 days of culture, T cells were analyzed for the expression of Foxp3 and of CD25. Numbers in outlined areas indicate percentage of cells. Results for hexa-acyl and tetra-acyl E. coli LPS are shown. Data similar to tetra-acyl E. coli LPS are observed while BMDC are stimulated with tetra-acyl Y. pestis LPS. Data are representative of 3 independent experiments. (EPS) Figure S5 Human IL-4 DC stimulation properties in the presence of E. coli LPS analogs and Y. pestis LPS. IL4 DC were stimulated for 72 h with medium, hexa-acyl E. coli LPS, tetra-acyl E. coli LPS, synthetic Lipid IVa and Y. pestis at 20 ng/ml. Cell culture supernatants were kept for cytokine measurement (IL-6, IL-10 and TNFa) by Luminex (A). Surface expression of HLA-DR, CD80 and CD86 was analyzed by flow cytometry (B) Experiments were performed on 4 different donors. Data for one representative donor are shown. (TIF)Supporting InformationFigure S1 LPS structure effect on mouse BMDM activation. Mouse BMDM were incubated with medium, E. coli hexa-acyl LPS (dark blue), E. coli tetra-acyl LPS (purple) or Y. pestis tetra-acyl LPS (light blue). Secretion levels of TNF-a were determined by ELISA after 8 h and 24 h of cell activation. Data represent means 6 standard errors of at least 4 independent experiments. **p,0.01. (EPS)Tetra-acyl LPS induce a TLR4-dependent DC activation. BMDC from wild type and Tlr42/2 mice (A) or Tlr22/2 mice (B) were stimulated for 8 h and 24 h with medium (grey) or E. coli hexa-acyl LPS (dark blue), E. coli tetra-acyl LPS (purple) or Y. pestis tetra-acyl LPS (light blue) or Pam2CSK4 (brown). TNF-a secretion was measured by ELISA. Data represent means 6 standard errors of at least 3 independent experiments, ***p,0.001, **p,0.01. (EPS)Figure SAcknowledgmentsWe thank Dr. Hugues Lelouard for critical advice on the manuscript.Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: JPG AM SO. Performed the experiments: AM YO CD LG. Analyzed the data: JPG AM YO CD SO IM LG. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: IM SO. Wrote the paper: JPG AM SO IM.
Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) is an important anaplerotic enzyme that catalyzes the ATP-driven carboxylation of pyruvate to oxaloaceate. This reaction is 24786787 not only the first important committed step of hepatic gluconeogenesis but also crucial for cataplerosis as Krebs cycle intermediates are withdrawn for various biosynthetic purposes including de novo fatty acid synthesis in liver and adipose tissue, glyceroneogenesis in adipose tissue and glutamate production in astrocytes (for review see [1?]). PC also plays an important role in normal glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in pancreatic b-cells [4?]. Dysregulation of PC expression in liver, adipose tissue or islets is also associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes [7?1]. PC deficiency is a.

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