Representatives of `health service consumers’ in Uganda were summarised as follows

Representatives of `health service consumers’ in Uganda were summarised as follows:Patients were reportedly uncomfortable and dissatisfied with being handled by low cadre health workers. They wanted to be handled by doctors. They felt bad on learning that the attending health worker was not a doctor. (Uganda, Study #1)Although tasks performed by lower skilled health workers were not always paid through formal mechanisms, some health workers found ways to `cash in’ on their tasks. A study among CHWs in Kenya alluded to volunteer, periurban workers who wished to `acquire skills to sell, because of hard economic times in the country’ (Study # 10). Surgical Assistants in Mozambique were known, at times, to be `obliged to ask for illicit charges’ because of low remuneration relative to the amount of work they performed (Cumbi et al. 2007). Anecdotally, training lay workers in the community in some cases also resulted in untrained individuals posing as health workers and charging for their services (Study # 2, 10, 11). Category 2 ?TS should not be initiated in a health system where existing solutions are available and affordable In certain settings task shifting was seen as a direct threat to job safety and future employment prospects for nurses and doctors. In Uganda (Study # 1, 5), where aIdeally, the views of health workers and policy makers would be triangulated with the views of patients themselves. In the studies reviewed, views of patients and?2016 The Authors. Journal of Clinical Nursing Published by John Wiley Sons Ltd. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 25, 2083?H Mijovic et al.considerable number of doctors and nurses were unemployed or working overseas, task shifting was perceived by some health professionals and policy makers primarily as a short-sighted, cost-saving strategy, effectively pushing established professionals out of the healthcare system.That [task shifting] is an anomaly Uganda cannot afford. As long as we need the professionals, and they are within the country, we should employ them . . . (Senior Manager, Uganda, Study # 5)they are already used to the living conditions of their localities. (District Level Informant, Tanzania, Study # 9)Studies in the review highlighted the tension between health workers assuming new tasks who expected adequate compensation for the work performed and the policy makers who commonly assumed that task shifting was a `cost saving’ strategy. This is an important insight for any taskshifting programme in Kenya that affects nurses. There are many thousands of unemployed nurses in Kenya, and the benefits and limitations of the introduction of a new cadre in neonatal care should be compared to the prospect of employing more nurses in this area. Category 3 ?TS interventions must allow for career planning of all affected Olumacostat glasaretil site cadres Higher skilled cadres, managers and policy makers frequently agreed that compensation of new, lower cadres and opportunities for career progression were 5-BrdU manufacturer inadequate and could potentially compromise the long-term success of task-shifting programmes. The quotes below refer to the newly introduced cadres of M E Officers and Surgical Assistants respectively:They are watching their colleagues moving up the ladder! They are just in one place. Even the good ones . . . we are going to lose them if this trend continues. (Program Officer, Botswana, Study # 8) . . . An individual spends six years in school and continues to be considered mid-level [it’s unjust]. . . There is a huge gap.Representatives of `health service consumers’ in Uganda were summarised as follows:Patients were reportedly uncomfortable and dissatisfied with being handled by low cadre health workers. They wanted to be handled by doctors. They felt bad on learning that the attending health worker was not a doctor. (Uganda, Study #1)Although tasks performed by lower skilled health workers were not always paid through formal mechanisms, some health workers found ways to `cash in’ on their tasks. A study among CHWs in Kenya alluded to volunteer, periurban workers who wished to `acquire skills to sell, because of hard economic times in the country’ (Study # 10). Surgical Assistants in Mozambique were known, at times, to be `obliged to ask for illicit charges’ because of low remuneration relative to the amount of work they performed (Cumbi et al. 2007). Anecdotally, training lay workers in the community in some cases also resulted in untrained individuals posing as health workers and charging for their services (Study # 2, 10, 11). Category 2 ?TS should not be initiated in a health system where existing solutions are available and affordable In certain settings task shifting was seen as a direct threat to job safety and future employment prospects for nurses and doctors. In Uganda (Study # 1, 5), where aIdeally, the views of health workers and policy makers would be triangulated with the views of patients themselves. In the studies reviewed, views of patients and?2016 The Authors. Journal of Clinical Nursing Published by John Wiley Sons Ltd. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 25, 2083?H Mijovic et al.considerable number of doctors and nurses were unemployed or working overseas, task shifting was perceived by some health professionals and policy makers primarily as a short-sighted, cost-saving strategy, effectively pushing established professionals out of the healthcare system.That [task shifting] is an anomaly Uganda cannot afford. As long as we need the professionals, and they are within the country, we should employ them . . . (Senior Manager, Uganda, Study # 5)they are already used to the living conditions of their localities. (District Level Informant, Tanzania, Study # 9)Studies in the review highlighted the tension between health workers assuming new tasks who expected adequate compensation for the work performed and the policy makers who commonly assumed that task shifting was a `cost saving’ strategy. This is an important insight for any taskshifting programme in Kenya that affects nurses. There are many thousands of unemployed nurses in Kenya, and the benefits and limitations of the introduction of a new cadre in neonatal care should be compared to the prospect of employing more nurses in this area. Category 3 ?TS interventions must allow for career planning of all affected cadres Higher skilled cadres, managers and policy makers frequently agreed that compensation of new, lower cadres and opportunities for career progression were inadequate and could potentially compromise the long-term success of task-shifting programmes. The quotes below refer to the newly introduced cadres of M E Officers and Surgical Assistants respectively:They are watching their colleagues moving up the ladder! They are just in one place. Even the good ones . . . we are going to lose them if this trend continues. (Program Officer, Botswana, Study # 8) . . . An individual spends six years in school and continues to be considered mid-level [it’s unjust]. . . There is a huge gap.

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