Thor Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptCorreia et al.PageOther

Thor Mangafodipir (trisodium) web Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptCorreia et al.PageOther aspects of BH3-only protein interactions with Bax or Bak also remain unresolved. While transient binding of BH3-only Lixisenatide site proteins to the canonical BH3 binding grooves of Bax or Bak has been implicated in triggering Bax/Bak activation in some studies [30, 31, 39, 46], a secondary site for triggering Bax activation has been identified in others [37, 47, 48]. Because the peptide derivative used in the latter studies is much more effective than native Bim BH3 peptide in binding and activating Bax [49], detection of the secondary site might reflect unique properties of the ligand. According to the alternative indirect activation model, the major role of BH3-only proteins is to neutralize anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members, causing them to release Bax and Bak, which are then immediately competent to permeabilize the MOM [50, 51]. An earlier argument for this model was the lack of direct evidence for complexes between BH3-only proteins and Bax or Bak in intact cells [50]. However, interactions between BH3-only family members and Bak are now known to be transient [39, 45]; and structural studies have also confirmed interactions between BH3-only proteins and Bax or Bak [30, 31]. While the indirect activation model has fallen out of favor, the possibility that Bax and Bak are present in a preactivated state in cells one of the postulates of this model has not been fully explored and might have important implications for Bax and Bak function. A more recent, unified model combines elements of both prior models by suggesting that anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members inhibit MOMP both by sequestering direct activators and by binding activated Bax and Bak [52]. Consistent with this model, a number of biochemical [38, 53?5], cellular [56?8], and genetic studies [59] now agree that antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members have dual functions in inhibiting apoptosis. 1.3 Once activated, how do Bax and Bak permeabilize the MOM?Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptOnce BH3-only proteins trigger oligomerization of Bax and/or Bak, it is still unclear how MOMP occurs. Structural studies of Bcl-xL [60], Bax [61] and Bak [62] have revealed similarity between Bcl-2 family proteins and channel-forming domains of bacterial toxins such as diphtheria toxin [63] and colicin E1 [64], raising the possibility that all of these proteins may utilize similar mechanisms to permeabilize membranes. By analogy to the toxins, which are thought to insert their two hydrophobic core domains as hairpins into membranes to form pore like structures [65], a “hairpin insertion model” has also been proposed for Bax [66]. In particular, Bax 5 and 6, together with 9, are thought to insert into the MOM, while the other helices from different Bax monomers interact to promote oligomerization at the MOM cytoplasmic surface [66?9]. On the other hand, recent crystal structures of activated Bax and Bak suggest that conformational changes during activation involve separation of 5 and 6 rather than hairpin formation [30, 31]. These observed changes, which are thought to allow Bax and Bak to assume more flexible conformations, may resolve the issue of conflicting TM domain orientation in the dimers described above. However, the observed crystal structures are not consistent with models in which Bax or Bak insert hydrophobic hairpins into the MOM to form pores. Instead, based on furt.Thor Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptCorreia et al.PageOther aspects of BH3-only protein interactions with Bax or Bak also remain unresolved. While transient binding of BH3-only proteins to the canonical BH3 binding grooves of Bax or Bak has been implicated in triggering Bax/Bak activation in some studies [30, 31, 39, 46], a secondary site for triggering Bax activation has been identified in others [37, 47, 48]. Because the peptide derivative used in the latter studies is much more effective than native Bim BH3 peptide in binding and activating Bax [49], detection of the secondary site might reflect unique properties of the ligand. According to the alternative indirect activation model, the major role of BH3-only proteins is to neutralize anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members, causing them to release Bax and Bak, which are then immediately competent to permeabilize the MOM [50, 51]. An earlier argument for this model was the lack of direct evidence for complexes between BH3-only proteins and Bax or Bak in intact cells [50]. However, interactions between BH3-only family members and Bak are now known to be transient [39, 45]; and structural studies have also confirmed interactions between BH3-only proteins and Bax or Bak [30, 31]. While the indirect activation model has fallen out of favor, the possibility that Bax and Bak are present in a preactivated state in cells one of the postulates of this model has not been fully explored and might have important implications for Bax and Bak function. A more recent, unified model combines elements of both prior models by suggesting that anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members inhibit MOMP both by sequestering direct activators and by binding activated Bax and Bak [52]. Consistent with this model, a number of biochemical [38, 53?5], cellular [56?8], and genetic studies [59] now agree that antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members have dual functions in inhibiting apoptosis. 1.3 Once activated, how do Bax and Bak permeabilize the MOM?Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptOnce BH3-only proteins trigger oligomerization of Bax and/or Bak, it is still unclear how MOMP occurs. Structural studies of Bcl-xL [60], Bax [61] and Bak [62] have revealed similarity between Bcl-2 family proteins and channel-forming domains of bacterial toxins such as diphtheria toxin [63] and colicin E1 [64], raising the possibility that all of these proteins may utilize similar mechanisms to permeabilize membranes. By analogy to the toxins, which are thought to insert their two hydrophobic core domains as hairpins into membranes to form pore like structures [65], a “hairpin insertion model” has also been proposed for Bax [66]. In particular, Bax 5 and 6, together with 9, are thought to insert into the MOM, while the other helices from different Bax monomers interact to promote oligomerization at the MOM cytoplasmic surface [66?9]. On the other hand, recent crystal structures of activated Bax and Bak suggest that conformational changes during activation involve separation of 5 and 6 rather than hairpin formation [30, 31]. These observed changes, which are thought to allow Bax and Bak to assume more flexible conformations, may resolve the issue of conflicting TM domain orientation in the dimers described above. However, the observed crystal structures are not consistent with models in which Bax or Bak insert hydrophobic hairpins into the MOM to form pores. Instead, based on furt.

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