Ls of communal goals. However, by 10th grade,Alcohol Clin Exp

Ls of communal goals. However, by 10th grade,Alcohol Clin Exp Res. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2016 December 01.Meisel and ColderPageinjunctive, but not MG-132 web descriptive norms were prospectively associated with alcohol use for these adolescents. This pattern suggests a developmental shift such that youth characterized by high communal goals are likely to conform to descriptive alcohol norms in early adolescence and then to injunctive norms later in adolescence. We expected that youth with strong communal goals would be motivated to conform to peer approval of drinking (injunctive norms) to maintain close order Pemafibrate social ties. However, why conformity to descriptive norms was evident in early adolescence is unclear. Approval of drinking during early adolescence is fairly low (Jackson et al., 2014; Voogt et al., 2013), yet adolescents (even in early adolescence) view the prototypical drinker as someone who is gregarious, social, and fits in (Norman et al., 2007). In the absence of approval in early adolescence, youth with strong communal goals may conform to descriptive norms to maintain or form social ties. However, in later adolescence when alcohol becomes more common and attitudes about alcohol become more positive (Colder et al., 2014) injunctive norms may become of the more salient guide of drinking behavior. Descriptive and injunctive norms were found to be prospectively associated with alcohol use in 10th grade for adolescents with low levels of communal goals. These findings were surprising. Social norms were not hypothesized to be associated with alcohol use for adolescence low in communal goals because these individuals are typically described as being socially detached (Ojanen et al., 2005). Moreover, weak communal goals are associated with high levels of social anxiety, shyness, social avoidance and unsociability (Authors, 2008), suggesting that these youth might be isolated from social contexts that promote drinking. However some research suggests that although adolescents with low communal goals are socially detached and rejected by their peers, they may still desire peer relationships (Ojanen et al, 2005; Authors, 2008). Additionally, work from developmental neuroscience suggests that there is an increased desire to have peer interactions during pubertal development, perhaps, as a result of maturation of neural circuitry that make these interactions more rewarding (Steinberg, 2007). Indeed, one of the notable transitions during adolescence is a shift toward spending increasing amounts of time with peers (Spear, 2000). Taken together, these findings suggest that despite their desire for emotional distance, adolescents low in communal goals may desire social ties and may look at social norms of drinking as a means of meeting their conflicting desire for emotional distance and social connectedness. Limitations Although the current study had several strengths including its longitudinal design spanning early to middle adolescence and its assessment of unique moderating mechanisms of descriptive and injunctive norms, it is important to note several limitations. First, our study spanned early to middle adolescence, and consequently our findings are most generalizable to the early stages of alcohol use (initiation and experimentation). Additionally, while descriptive and injunctive norms have been shown to be largely inaccurate in later adolescence (Borsari and Carey, 2003), few studies have assessed the accuracy of descriptive norms in e.Ls of communal goals. However, by 10th grade,Alcohol Clin Exp Res. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2016 December 01.Meisel and ColderPageinjunctive, but not descriptive norms were prospectively associated with alcohol use for these adolescents. This pattern suggests a developmental shift such that youth characterized by high communal goals are likely to conform to descriptive alcohol norms in early adolescence and then to injunctive norms later in adolescence. We expected that youth with strong communal goals would be motivated to conform to peer approval of drinking (injunctive norms) to maintain close social ties. However, why conformity to descriptive norms was evident in early adolescence is unclear. Approval of drinking during early adolescence is fairly low (Jackson et al., 2014; Voogt et al., 2013), yet adolescents (even in early adolescence) view the prototypical drinker as someone who is gregarious, social, and fits in (Norman et al., 2007). In the absence of approval in early adolescence, youth with strong communal goals may conform to descriptive norms to maintain or form social ties. However, in later adolescence when alcohol becomes more common and attitudes about alcohol become more positive (Colder et al., 2014) injunctive norms may become of the more salient guide of drinking behavior. Descriptive and injunctive norms were found to be prospectively associated with alcohol use in 10th grade for adolescents with low levels of communal goals. These findings were surprising. Social norms were not hypothesized to be associated with alcohol use for adolescence low in communal goals because these individuals are typically described as being socially detached (Ojanen et al., 2005). Moreover, weak communal goals are associated with high levels of social anxiety, shyness, social avoidance and unsociability (Authors, 2008), suggesting that these youth might be isolated from social contexts that promote drinking. However some research suggests that although adolescents with low communal goals are socially detached and rejected by their peers, they may still desire peer relationships (Ojanen et al, 2005; Authors, 2008). Additionally, work from developmental neuroscience suggests that there is an increased desire to have peer interactions during pubertal development, perhaps, as a result of maturation of neural circuitry that make these interactions more rewarding (Steinberg, 2007). Indeed, one of the notable transitions during adolescence is a shift toward spending increasing amounts of time with peers (Spear, 2000). Taken together, these findings suggest that despite their desire for emotional distance, adolescents low in communal goals may desire social ties and may look at social norms of drinking as a means of meeting their conflicting desire for emotional distance and social connectedness. Limitations Although the current study had several strengths including its longitudinal design spanning early to middle adolescence and its assessment of unique moderating mechanisms of descriptive and injunctive norms, it is important to note several limitations. First, our study spanned early to middle adolescence, and consequently our findings are most generalizable to the early stages of alcohol use (initiation and experimentation). Additionally, while descriptive and injunctive norms have been shown to be largely inaccurate in later adolescence (Borsari and Carey, 2003), few studies have assessed the accuracy of descriptive norms in e.

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