Between the salaries of medical doctors and the TCs. . .[surgical assistants

Between the salaries of medical doctors and the TCs. . .[surgical assistants]. (Medical Doctor, Mozambique, Study # 4)Contrasting the findings associated with lower and Leupeptin (hemisulfate) site higher levels of task shifting, it appears that structured career planning is more of an issue for skilled staff taking on new tasks. With that said, lower-level staff involved in task shifting, especially new lower cadres such as that envisioned in the Kenyan scheme, seem likely to view their training as an opportunity to become recognised providers of medical care. To prevent lower cadres being tempted to enact informal charging or to misrepresent themselves as nurses or doctors, lower cadres should be closely monitored and adequately paid. In addition, although this is less of a concern for lowerlevel workers, their formal position within the hierarchy of healthcare positions should be planned, and the requirements for entry to more advanced posts made clear.DiscussionLimitations and strengthsDefining task shifting in literature search Task-shifting interventions may not be labelled as such in literature. For example, systematic review of midwifery services found that although the term `task shifting’ was used commonly in relation to community health workers, `task shifting’ was used infrequently when describing interventions involving midwives (Colvin et al. 2013). Our literature search included terms that were synonymous/near synonymous with task shifting as well as a review of secondary references. The list of search terms was not exhaustive and it is possible that the studies identified were more likely to represent some cadres than others. Obtaining rich qualitative data As mentioned in the discussion on the quality of studies included in the review, qualitative studies published in health Carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone web journals provide a diverse, but somewhat limited amount of data. Further grey literature searches with focus on obtaining unpublished documents from various health organisations and identifying extensive ethnographic projects conducted by anthropologists would potentially provide richer data and inform subsequent analysis. Quality of the studies in the review Studies were included regardless of the quality score assigned. All studies provided narratives that were helpful in drawing a larger picture about the impact of task-shifting programmesAt the same time lower skilled cadres were often seen as part of the solution to providing healthcare to underserviced areas. They had good retention rates compared to higher skilled staff and they came at a substantially lower cost. It was widely acknowledged that lower, less skilled cadres performing tasks at a lower cost was in fact what made task shifting a plausible mechanism for providing additional health services in the first place:Skills of lower cadre health workers and especially community health workers are hardly portable both nationally and internationally. Lower cadre health workers can also be easily and cheaply recruited from within areas where they live and where they are supposed to be working. It is thus easy to retain these workers as?2016 The Authors. Journal of Clinical Nursing Published by John Wiley Sons Ltd. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 25, 2083?ReviewReview: Task shifting in sub-Saharan Africaon health workers. Due to limited researcher reflexivity and scant information about study informants, reliability of individual study findings was at times difficult to ascertain. It is likely that important perspectives.Between the salaries of medical doctors and the TCs. . .[surgical assistants]. (Medical Doctor, Mozambique, Study # 4)Contrasting the findings associated with lower and higher levels of task shifting, it appears that structured career planning is more of an issue for skilled staff taking on new tasks. With that said, lower-level staff involved in task shifting, especially new lower cadres such as that envisioned in the Kenyan scheme, seem likely to view their training as an opportunity to become recognised providers of medical care. To prevent lower cadres being tempted to enact informal charging or to misrepresent themselves as nurses or doctors, lower cadres should be closely monitored and adequately paid. In addition, although this is less of a concern for lowerlevel workers, their formal position within the hierarchy of healthcare positions should be planned, and the requirements for entry to more advanced posts made clear.DiscussionLimitations and strengthsDefining task shifting in literature search Task-shifting interventions may not be labelled as such in literature. For example, systematic review of midwifery services found that although the term `task shifting’ was used commonly in relation to community health workers, `task shifting’ was used infrequently when describing interventions involving midwives (Colvin et al. 2013). Our literature search included terms that were synonymous/near synonymous with task shifting as well as a review of secondary references. The list of search terms was not exhaustive and it is possible that the studies identified were more likely to represent some cadres than others. Obtaining rich qualitative data As mentioned in the discussion on the quality of studies included in the review, qualitative studies published in health journals provide a diverse, but somewhat limited amount of data. Further grey literature searches with focus on obtaining unpublished documents from various health organisations and identifying extensive ethnographic projects conducted by anthropologists would potentially provide richer data and inform subsequent analysis. Quality of the studies in the review Studies were included regardless of the quality score assigned. All studies provided narratives that were helpful in drawing a larger picture about the impact of task-shifting programmesAt the same time lower skilled cadres were often seen as part of the solution to providing healthcare to underserviced areas. They had good retention rates compared to higher skilled staff and they came at a substantially lower cost. It was widely acknowledged that lower, less skilled cadres performing tasks at a lower cost was in fact what made task shifting a plausible mechanism for providing additional health services in the first place:Skills of lower cadre health workers and especially community health workers are hardly portable both nationally and internationally. Lower cadre health workers can also be easily and cheaply recruited from within areas where they live and where they are supposed to be working. It is thus easy to retain these workers as?2016 The Authors. Journal of Clinical Nursing Published by John Wiley Sons Ltd. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 25, 2083?ReviewReview: Task shifting in sub-Saharan Africaon health workers. Due to limited researcher reflexivity and scant information about study informants, reliability of individual study findings was at times difficult to ascertain. It is likely that important perspectives.

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