Ed the kinship claims, which were fundamentally about quality of care.

Ed the kinship claims, which were fundamentally about quality of care. However, there is the devastating potential that the legal and kinship claims might contradict each other, which creates insecurities for caregivers and children. The Nthos, an elderly couple in their seventies, were also caring for their maternal grandchildren because their daughter migrated with her children to her natal home during the late stages of her illness. Both the mother and youngest child were HIV-positive. The grandfather, Ntate Bokang, said, ‘The parents on the BAY 11-7085 custom synthesis father’s side were not taking care of the mother … They were not taking care at all’. However, these maternal grandparents felt deeply insecure about the lack of formality in their arrangement: Grandfather: When we die, what is going to happen? Because we don’t have a boy. What is going to happen to our houses? I don’t know … Grandmother: Me,I just think what if Ntate-Moholo [grandfather] and I, we can both die, who is going to take care of these children of my daughter? Because we are the ones taking care of them. Because, on the father’s side, they seem not to take care of them. And I’m always praying to God to help me so that I can live for a long time and they should be old enough to do things for themselves.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptJ R Anthropol Inst. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 April 08.BlockPageAlthough the paternal family had shown no interest in caring for the children, the Nthos harboured concerns about the children’s future. Ntate Bokang said, ‘Because we are the parents of their mother we have to take care of them. When they grow up and if they want to go to that family [father’s side] they will go because they are still using their surname (fane)’. The unspoken concern was that once the children were old enough to make significant contributions to the household, especially in terms of agricultural work, the paternal family would want them back. The Nthos’ substantial caregiving investment was not enough to ensure that the children belonged to them. When the Nthos’ daughter married her husband, he paid four cows, an acceptable initial payment at the time of marriage. This partial payment created insecurity for the Ntho family. The emphasis on bridewealth payments in negotiating caregiver rights is notable because in practice bridewealth is a fading, though not extinct, practice among Basotho. Historically, bridewealth reinforced the processual nature of a union, whereby an initial payment was made at the time of marriage, with the remaining cows (or agreed-upon equivalent of cash, goods, or other animals) paid over time (Ashton 1967; Murray 1981). Contemporary marriage, though less reliant on bridewealth, is still conceived as a process as opposed to an event (Comaroff Comaroff 2001; Murray 1976; N.W. Townsend 1997). While many Basotho participate in legal and/or customary marriage ceremonies, others consider cohabitation to Enzastaurin biological activity signify the start of their marriage. As a result, the marital status of a couple, and consequently the appropriate caregiver for orphans, is less obvious and more open to negotiation. Elderly Basotho are more likely than young people to extol the value of bridewealth in strengthening a marriage, and conversely to attribute the dissolution of marriages to the decline in bridewealth practices. Indeed, several elderly Basotho told me that when they fought with their spouses, their parents encouraged the.Ed the kinship claims, which were fundamentally about quality of care. However, there is the devastating potential that the legal and kinship claims might contradict each other, which creates insecurities for caregivers and children. The Nthos, an elderly couple in their seventies, were also caring for their maternal grandchildren because their daughter migrated with her children to her natal home during the late stages of her illness. Both the mother and youngest child were HIV-positive. The grandfather, Ntate Bokang, said, ‘The parents on the father’s side were not taking care of the mother … They were not taking care at all’. However, these maternal grandparents felt deeply insecure about the lack of formality in their arrangement: Grandfather: When we die, what is going to happen? Because we don’t have a boy. What is going to happen to our houses? I don’t know … Grandmother: Me,I just think what if Ntate-Moholo [grandfather] and I, we can both die, who is going to take care of these children of my daughter? Because we are the ones taking care of them. Because, on the father’s side, they seem not to take care of them. And I’m always praying to God to help me so that I can live for a long time and they should be old enough to do things for themselves.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptJ R Anthropol Inst. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 April 08.BlockPageAlthough the paternal family had shown no interest in caring for the children, the Nthos harboured concerns about the children’s future. Ntate Bokang said, ‘Because we are the parents of their mother we have to take care of them. When they grow up and if they want to go to that family [father’s side] they will go because they are still using their surname (fane)’. The unspoken concern was that once the children were old enough to make significant contributions to the household, especially in terms of agricultural work, the paternal family would want them back. The Nthos’ substantial caregiving investment was not enough to ensure that the children belonged to them. When the Nthos’ daughter married her husband, he paid four cows, an acceptable initial payment at the time of marriage. This partial payment created insecurity for the Ntho family. The emphasis on bridewealth payments in negotiating caregiver rights is notable because in practice bridewealth is a fading, though not extinct, practice among Basotho. Historically, bridewealth reinforced the processual nature of a union, whereby an initial payment was made at the time of marriage, with the remaining cows (or agreed-upon equivalent of cash, goods, or other animals) paid over time (Ashton 1967; Murray 1981). Contemporary marriage, though less reliant on bridewealth, is still conceived as a process as opposed to an event (Comaroff Comaroff 2001; Murray 1976; N.W. Townsend 1997). While many Basotho participate in legal and/or customary marriage ceremonies, others consider cohabitation to signify the start of their marriage. As a result, the marital status of a couple, and consequently the appropriate caregiver for orphans, is less obvious and more open to negotiation. Elderly Basotho are more likely than young people to extol the value of bridewealth in strengthening a marriage, and conversely to attribute the dissolution of marriages to the decline in bridewealth practices. Indeed, several elderly Basotho told me that when they fought with their spouses, their parents encouraged the.

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