Olution. However, this is a 6H+/6e- reaction and cannot occur

Olution. However, this is a 6H+/6e- reaction and cannot occur in one step.243 The energetics of the intermediates are therefore important. Industrially, dinitrogen is reduced to ammonia via the Haber-Bosch GGTI298MedChemExpress GGTI298 process which is carried out at high temperatures and high pressures by an iron catalyst. The high temperature is needed to overcome the kinetic barrier, but makes the reaction less favorable so high pressures are needed. Combining the production of the H2 and the operation of the Haber-Bosch process, it is said that industrial N2-fixation accounts for 1 or more of the total human energy consumption.244 In biology, N2-fixation is accomplished by nitrogenase enzymes in solution at room temperature using reduced ferredoxins and ATP.243 Most biochemical studies and biomimetic models for nitrogen fixation propose sequential single-electron and single-proton transfers to metal-bound nitrogen species, but the thermochemistry of theseNIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptChem Rev. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 December 8.Warren et al.Pagesteps is not experimentally known (only in the Schrock/Yandulov cycle is there good evidence for each of the various intermediates).245,246 Much less is known about the solution thermochemistry of simple NxHyz?species compared with the oxygen analogs. The known aqueous values are provided by Stanbury,247 and Koper has recently reviewed electrochemical studies.248 Dinitrogen is one of the most inert chemical compounds. The addition of a proton or an electron is not very favorable: N2 has a gas phase proton affinity of 5.12 eV, slightly less than methane, and its electron affinity is negative (-1.8 eV).243 The BDE of NN is estimated to be close to or less than 0 kcal/mol (Table 11).249 These values make it unlikely that reduction of free dinitrogen can proceed through a free one-electron reduced species. The two H-atom reduced species of dinitrogen is diazene (HN=NH), also called diimide. Diazene is unstable, as it is powerful H-atom transfer agent with a first BDE of only 60 kcal/mol.49 The Cynaroside cost average gas phase BDFE for Z-diazene to N2 + 2H?is only 19.5 kcal mol-1 (average BDE = 26.7 kcal mol-1), so decomposition to N2 and H2 is very favorable.49 Moreover, diazene is thought to transfer both hydrogens in a concerted fashion to alkenes and alkynes, a very rare example of a 2e-/2H+ reaction.250 Diazene, like dinitrogen, is a very poor base, with a pKa of the conjugate acid of less than zero.251 The reduction of diazene by one H-atom gives the hydrazyl radical (HNNH2), a high-energy species with a very weak N-H bond. Hydrazyl is capable of abstracting an H-atom to yield the more stable hydrazine (H2NNH2) with BDFEaq(H2NNH2) = 83 kcal mol-1. In the gas phase the average BDFE for H2NNH2 to Z-diazene + 2H?is 58.7 kcal mol-1 (average BDE = 66.2 kcal mol-1).49 Like peroxides, hydrazine has a week N bond (BDE = 66.2 kcal mol-1) and can undergo homolytic N bond cleavage as well as PCET reactions. Hydrazine’s lone pairs make it moderately basic, with a first pKa of the conjugate acid similar to the pKa of ammonium, though the addition of a second proton is very unfavorable. 247 Electron transfer oxidation of tetraalkylhydrazines have been examined by Nelsen and others.252 Hydrazine is a powerful, but kinetically slow oxidant, undergoing 2e-/2H+ reduction to give two molecules of ammonium with E?= 1.2 V in acidic aqueous solution. 253 Hydrazine has also been used as a mild.Olution. However, this is a 6H+/6e- reaction and cannot occur in one step.243 The energetics of the intermediates are therefore important. Industrially, dinitrogen is reduced to ammonia via the Haber-Bosch process which is carried out at high temperatures and high pressures by an iron catalyst. The high temperature is needed to overcome the kinetic barrier, but makes the reaction less favorable so high pressures are needed. Combining the production of the H2 and the operation of the Haber-Bosch process, it is said that industrial N2-fixation accounts for 1 or more of the total human energy consumption.244 In biology, N2-fixation is accomplished by nitrogenase enzymes in solution at room temperature using reduced ferredoxins and ATP.243 Most biochemical studies and biomimetic models for nitrogen fixation propose sequential single-electron and single-proton transfers to metal-bound nitrogen species, but the thermochemistry of theseNIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptChem Rev. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 December 8.Warren et al.Pagesteps is not experimentally known (only in the Schrock/Yandulov cycle is there good evidence for each of the various intermediates).245,246 Much less is known about the solution thermochemistry of simple NxHyz?species compared with the oxygen analogs. The known aqueous values are provided by Stanbury,247 and Koper has recently reviewed electrochemical studies.248 Dinitrogen is one of the most inert chemical compounds. The addition of a proton or an electron is not very favorable: N2 has a gas phase proton affinity of 5.12 eV, slightly less than methane, and its electron affinity is negative (-1.8 eV).243 The BDE of NN is estimated to be close to or less than 0 kcal/mol (Table 11).249 These values make it unlikely that reduction of free dinitrogen can proceed through a free one-electron reduced species. The two H-atom reduced species of dinitrogen is diazene (HN=NH), also called diimide. Diazene is unstable, as it is powerful H-atom transfer agent with a first BDE of only 60 kcal/mol.49 The average gas phase BDFE for Z-diazene to N2 + 2H?is only 19.5 kcal mol-1 (average BDE = 26.7 kcal mol-1), so decomposition to N2 and H2 is very favorable.49 Moreover, diazene is thought to transfer both hydrogens in a concerted fashion to alkenes and alkynes, a very rare example of a 2e-/2H+ reaction.250 Diazene, like dinitrogen, is a very poor base, with a pKa of the conjugate acid of less than zero.251 The reduction of diazene by one H-atom gives the hydrazyl radical (HNNH2), a high-energy species with a very weak N-H bond. Hydrazyl is capable of abstracting an H-atom to yield the more stable hydrazine (H2NNH2) with BDFEaq(H2NNH2) = 83 kcal mol-1. In the gas phase the average BDFE for H2NNH2 to Z-diazene + 2H?is 58.7 kcal mol-1 (average BDE = 66.2 kcal mol-1).49 Like peroxides, hydrazine has a week N bond (BDE = 66.2 kcal mol-1) and can undergo homolytic N bond cleavage as well as PCET reactions. Hydrazine’s lone pairs make it moderately basic, with a first pKa of the conjugate acid similar to the pKa of ammonium, though the addition of a second proton is very unfavorable. 247 Electron transfer oxidation of tetraalkylhydrazines have been examined by Nelsen and others.252 Hydrazine is a powerful, but kinetically slow oxidant, undergoing 2e-/2H+ reduction to give two molecules of ammonium with E?= 1.2 V in acidic aqueous solution. 253 Hydrazine has also been used as a mild.

Leave a Reply