Ized by weak communal goals.Alcohol Clin Exp Res. Author manuscript

Ized by weak communal goals.Alcohol Clin Exp Res. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2016 December 01.Meisel and ColderPageInjunctive NormsAuthor Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptInjunctive Norms X Communal Goals As depicted in Panel C of Figure 1, 6th grade injunctive norms were associated with increased probability of alcohol in 7th grade alcohol use for Aprotinin biological activity adolescents with low (OR=2.91, p<.05), but not high (OR=0.76, p>.05) levels of communal goals. Moving to later adolescence, high levels of injunctive norms in 9th grade were associated with increased probability of alcohol use in 10th grade for adolescents with both low (OR=1.80, p>.05) and high (OR=2.68, p>.05) levels of communal goals. This pattern suggests that injunctive norms take on increasing importance in later adolescence Oxaliplatin chemical information across the spectrum of communal goals. These findings provide partial support for the hypothesized interaction between injunctive norms, high communal goals and grade but also contradict our hypotheses such that high levels of injunctive norms and low levels of communal goals predicted higher levels of alcohol use in later adolescence.DiscussionAlthough social norms are robust predictors of adolescent alcohol use (Borsari and Carey, 2001; Perkins, 2002), theoretical formulations suggest that the impact social norms have on behavior varies depending on their salience. Few studies have examined potential mechanisms that may make social norms more or less salient to influence adolescent early drinking. The current study looked to elucidate moderating factors that might impact the strength of association between social norms on adolescent early alcohol use. Specifically, agentic and communal social goals were tested as moderators of the association between descriptive and injunctive norms and alcohol use across early to middle adolescence. Findings supported the moderating role of social goals, but the effects depended on grade. Partial support was found for our hypothesis that descriptive norms would be a stronger predictor of alcohol use for adolescents with high levels of agentic goals. Perceptions of peer alcohol use (descriptive norms) were not prospectively associated with 7th grade alcohol use for adolescents with either low or high agentic goals. However, in later adolescence, descriptive norms came to be prospectively associated with 10th grade alcohol use for individuals characterized by high levels of agentic goals, suggesting that the moderating influence of agentic goals do not emerge until later adolescence. Several lines of evidence suggest that adolescence who value status and power (high agentic goals) may conform to peer drinking norms as a means to obtain or maintain social standing. Recent work suggests that alcohol use is linked to popular status, especially in later adolescence (Allen et al., 2005; Balsa et al., 2011). Moreover, there is evidence that popular peers are particularly susceptible to peer social norms because they are highly attuned to the behaviors of their peers and motivated to maintain their social status (Allen et al., 2005; Cillessen and Mayeux, 2004). These dynamics are likely not limited to alcohol use as evident by studies showing that popularity and high agency are associated with a wide variety of risk behavior (Mayeux et al., 2008; Markey et al., 2005). Contrary to our hypotheses, descriptive norms were prospectively associated with 7th grade alcohol use for adolescents with high leve.Ized by weak communal goals.Alcohol Clin Exp Res. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2016 December 01.Meisel and ColderPageInjunctive NormsAuthor Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptInjunctive Norms X Communal Goals As depicted in Panel C of Figure 1, 6th grade injunctive norms were associated with increased probability of alcohol in 7th grade alcohol use for adolescents with low (OR=2.91, p<.05), but not high (OR=0.76, p>.05) levels of communal goals. Moving to later adolescence, high levels of injunctive norms in 9th grade were associated with increased probability of alcohol use in 10th grade for adolescents with both low (OR=1.80, p>.05) and high (OR=2.68, p>.05) levels of communal goals. This pattern suggests that injunctive norms take on increasing importance in later adolescence across the spectrum of communal goals. These findings provide partial support for the hypothesized interaction between injunctive norms, high communal goals and grade but also contradict our hypotheses such that high levels of injunctive norms and low levels of communal goals predicted higher levels of alcohol use in later adolescence.DiscussionAlthough social norms are robust predictors of adolescent alcohol use (Borsari and Carey, 2001; Perkins, 2002), theoretical formulations suggest that the impact social norms have on behavior varies depending on their salience. Few studies have examined potential mechanisms that may make social norms more or less salient to influence adolescent early drinking. The current study looked to elucidate moderating factors that might impact the strength of association between social norms on adolescent early alcohol use. Specifically, agentic and communal social goals were tested as moderators of the association between descriptive and injunctive norms and alcohol use across early to middle adolescence. Findings supported the moderating role of social goals, but the effects depended on grade. Partial support was found for our hypothesis that descriptive norms would be a stronger predictor of alcohol use for adolescents with high levels of agentic goals. Perceptions of peer alcohol use (descriptive norms) were not prospectively associated with 7th grade alcohol use for adolescents with either low or high agentic goals. However, in later adolescence, descriptive norms came to be prospectively associated with 10th grade alcohol use for individuals characterized by high levels of agentic goals, suggesting that the moderating influence of agentic goals do not emerge until later adolescence. Several lines of evidence suggest that adolescence who value status and power (high agentic goals) may conform to peer drinking norms as a means to obtain or maintain social standing. Recent work suggests that alcohol use is linked to popular status, especially in later adolescence (Allen et al., 2005; Balsa et al., 2011). Moreover, there is evidence that popular peers are particularly susceptible to peer social norms because they are highly attuned to the behaviors of their peers and motivated to maintain their social status (Allen et al., 2005; Cillessen and Mayeux, 2004). These dynamics are likely not limited to alcohol use as evident by studies showing that popularity and high agency are associated with a wide variety of risk behavior (Mayeux et al., 2008; Markey et al., 2005). Contrary to our hypotheses, descriptive norms were prospectively associated with 7th grade alcohol use for adolescents with high leve.

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