Ose seen in the control rats. Altogether, these findings suggest that

Ose seen in the control rats. Altogether, these findings suggest that RAS OPC-8212MedChemExpress Vesnarinone blockade and ETS-1 blockade alone improve GIS in hypertensive DS rats; however, only concomitant RAS and ETS-1 blockade had a significant effect on interstitial fibrosis. ETS-1 Blockade Reduces Urinary TGF- and Cortical Fibronectin Expression To better assess the role of ETS-1 blockade alone or in combination with RAS blockade on renal injury, we determined their effects on cortical fibronectin expression and on urinary excretion of TGF-. As shown in Figure 5, hypertensive DS rats had a significant increase in the cortical expression of fibronectin compared with normotensive DS rats. Treatment with DN, but not with MU, peptide normalized fibronectin expression as assessed by Western blot. Treatment with ARB, however, had no significant effect on fibronectin, whereas concomitant RAS and ETS-1 blockade had similar effects to ETS-1 blockade alone. To determine whether these changes in fibronectin expression were linked to changes in TGF- production, a critical growth factor implicated in the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis, we 24 measured the urinary excretion of TGF- as we have and others have previously described. As shown in Table, hypertensive DS rats had significantly higher urinary excretion of TGF- compared with normotensive DS rats. The administration of DN peptide resulted in significant reductions in the urinary excretion of TGF- while treatment with the MU peptide had no effect. Treatment with ARB alone had no effect, whereas the combination of DN/ARB completely normalized the urinary excretion of TGF- in hypertensive DS rats. ETS-1 Blockade Reduces Macrophage Infiltration in Hypertensive DS rats Given the well-known role of inflammation as mediator of the effects of renal injury in 25 hypertensive DS rats, ,26 we determined the effects of ETS-1 blockade alone or in combination with RAS blockade on macrophage infiltration. As shown in Figure 6, we observed a significant increase in macrophage infiltration in hypertensive DS rats that was more evident in periglomerular areas and the cortical interstitium. Treatment with DN normalized the number of macrophages infiltrating the cortex of hypertensive DS rats while the MU peptide had no effect. Treatment with ARB had a modest albeit significant effect on macrophage infiltration while dual ETS-1 and RAS blockade reduced macrophage infiltration to levels similar to those of control rats on low-salt diet.Hypertension. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2016 June 08.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptFeng et al.PageEffects of ETS-1 Blockade on Components of the RASAuthor Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptTo determine the effects of ETS 1 on specific components of the RAS, we determined the effects of ETS 1 blockade on the cortical concentrations of Ang II and the urinary excretion of angiotensinogen. As shown in the Table, hypertensive DS rats on a high-salt diet had a significant increase in the urinary excretion of angiotensinogen that was significantly reduced by ETS 1 blockade and ARB and normalized by the combination of ETS-1 and RAS blockade. Hypertensive DS rats had purchase AZD4547 increased cortical expression of Ang II that was partially reduced by DN, MU, ARB, and concomitant ETS-1 and RAS blockade.DiscussionETS-1 is a member of the ETS family of transcription factors that share a highly conserved 6 DNA-binding domain (ETS domain) that originates from the.Ose seen in the control rats. Altogether, these findings suggest that RAS blockade and ETS-1 blockade alone improve GIS in hypertensive DS rats; however, only concomitant RAS and ETS-1 blockade had a significant effect on interstitial fibrosis. ETS-1 Blockade Reduces Urinary TGF- and Cortical Fibronectin Expression To better assess the role of ETS-1 blockade alone or in combination with RAS blockade on renal injury, we determined their effects on cortical fibronectin expression and on urinary excretion of TGF-. As shown in Figure 5, hypertensive DS rats had a significant increase in the cortical expression of fibronectin compared with normotensive DS rats. Treatment with DN, but not with MU, peptide normalized fibronectin expression as assessed by Western blot. Treatment with ARB, however, had no significant effect on fibronectin, whereas concomitant RAS and ETS-1 blockade had similar effects to ETS-1 blockade alone. To determine whether these changes in fibronectin expression were linked to changes in TGF- production, a critical growth factor implicated in the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis, we 24 measured the urinary excretion of TGF- as we have and others have previously described. As shown in Table, hypertensive DS rats had significantly higher urinary excretion of TGF- compared with normotensive DS rats. The administration of DN peptide resulted in significant reductions in the urinary excretion of TGF- while treatment with the MU peptide had no effect. Treatment with ARB alone had no effect, whereas the combination of DN/ARB completely normalized the urinary excretion of TGF- in hypertensive DS rats. ETS-1 Blockade Reduces Macrophage Infiltration in Hypertensive DS rats Given the well-known role of inflammation as mediator of the effects of renal injury in 25 hypertensive DS rats, ,26 we determined the effects of ETS-1 blockade alone or in combination with RAS blockade on macrophage infiltration. As shown in Figure 6, we observed a significant increase in macrophage infiltration in hypertensive DS rats that was more evident in periglomerular areas and the cortical interstitium. Treatment with DN normalized the number of macrophages infiltrating the cortex of hypertensive DS rats while the MU peptide had no effect. Treatment with ARB had a modest albeit significant effect on macrophage infiltration while dual ETS-1 and RAS blockade reduced macrophage infiltration to levels similar to those of control rats on low-salt diet.Hypertension. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2016 June 08.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptFeng et al.PageEffects of ETS-1 Blockade on Components of the RASAuthor Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptTo determine the effects of ETS 1 on specific components of the RAS, we determined the effects of ETS 1 blockade on the cortical concentrations of Ang II and the urinary excretion of angiotensinogen. As shown in the Table, hypertensive DS rats on a high-salt diet had a significant increase in the urinary excretion of angiotensinogen that was significantly reduced by ETS 1 blockade and ARB and normalized by the combination of ETS-1 and RAS blockade. Hypertensive DS rats had increased cortical expression of Ang II that was partially reduced by DN, MU, ARB, and concomitant ETS-1 and RAS blockade.DiscussionETS-1 is a member of the ETS family of transcription factors that share a highly conserved 6 DNA-binding domain (ETS domain) that originates from the.

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