Tempt to get evidence for a hypothetical lipid flippase activity of

Tempt to get evidence for a hypothetical lipid flippase activity of Flc proteins we used standard tests to measure lipid biosynthesis in flc mutants. For this 123ty cells were labeled with [3H]-C16:0 or [3H]-myo-inositol after 16 h of culture with or without Doxy, the time it takes to see a slow down of the growth rate of Doxytreated cells in comparison with non-treated cells (S3A Fig (Division times of single or combined flc mutants)). When the cells were grown with Doxy in the absence of 1.4 M sorbitol, [3H]-C16:0 incorporation into GPLs and sphingolipids in 123ty cells was very low (Fig 4A). (Sphingolipids are the only polar lipids remaining after NaOH treatment). When grown in sorbitol, the synthesis rate of GPLs was brought back, although not to WT levels (Fig 4B). This difference could not be attributed to a difference in cell viability since colony forming units (CFU) after 16 h of culture on Doxy with and without sorbitol was the same (39 and 41 , respectively, compared to cells not treated with Doxy). In spite of reduced viability by this criterion, all cells still retained a full redox potential (see below). Differently from GPLs, sphingolipid biosynthesis remained inefficient in Doxy treated 123ty cells even on sorbitol, both ifPLOS Genetics | DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.July 27,7 /Yeast E-MAP for Identification of Membrane Transporters Operating Lipid Flip FlopFig 4. Lipid biosynthesis of 123ty mutants assessed by metabolic labeling. (A ) WT or 123ty cells incubated with or without 10 g/ml Doxy for the indicated times in YPD (A) or YPD + 1.4 M sorbitol (B), were radiolabeled with [3H]-C16:0 for the indicated times at 30 , the lipids were extracted, treated with NaOH as indicated, spotted and separated by TLC using solvent 1. (C) same as in (B) but additional 25 M of cold C16:0 were added during labeling and lipids were separated by TLC with solvent 2. (D) cells grown with or without 10 g/ml Doxy for 16 h in inositol-free SC + 1.4 M sorbitol were labeled with [3H]-myo-inositol for 2 h and the lipids from 10 OD600 of each cell type were processed as in (C). NL = neutral lipids are free FAs, DAG, TAG, ergosterol esters and (acyl-)ceramides. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1006160.g[3H]-C16:0 or [3H]-myo-inositol was used to label cells (Fig 4C and 4D). In Doxy treated 123ty mutants, the incorporation of [3H]-myo-inositol tended to remain in the form of phosphatidylinositol (PI) (Fig 4D). Accumulation of PI is expected when ceramides are not made in sufficient quantity since most PI is normally consumed by Aur1-Kei1 transferring inositol-phosphate from PI to ceramides thus generating inositolphosphorylceramides. Three possible ICG-001 web reasons for the reduction of the lipid biosynthesis rate in Doxy treated 123ty mutants came to our mind: 1) The proposed lack of FAD [30] would lead to a severe dysfunction of Ero1 and Pdi1 and a lack of proper oxidative folding of some ER proteins, also affecting enzymes involved in lipid biosynthesis [35]. 2) The reduced activity of the lipid biosynthetic enzymes would be related to the growth arrest the cells undergo when incubated with Doxy and 3) The flc mutants would indeed have a defect in flipping acyl-CoA or GPLs from the cytosol into the lumen of the ER. To get evidence for a flippase defect in flc mutants, we measured the acyl transferase activity of RG1662 dose microsomes in presence of very low concentrations of 16:0-CoA hoping that low concentrations of acyl-CoA would make the PA synthesis more dependent on flippa.Tempt to get evidence for a hypothetical lipid flippase activity of Flc proteins we used standard tests to measure lipid biosynthesis in flc mutants. For this 123ty cells were labeled with [3H]-C16:0 or [3H]-myo-inositol after 16 h of culture with or without Doxy, the time it takes to see a slow down of the growth rate of Doxytreated cells in comparison with non-treated cells (S3A Fig (Division times of single or combined flc mutants)). When the cells were grown with Doxy in the absence of 1.4 M sorbitol, [3H]-C16:0 incorporation into GPLs and sphingolipids in 123ty cells was very low (Fig 4A). (Sphingolipids are the only polar lipids remaining after NaOH treatment). When grown in sorbitol, the synthesis rate of GPLs was brought back, although not to WT levels (Fig 4B). This difference could not be attributed to a difference in cell viability since colony forming units (CFU) after 16 h of culture on Doxy with and without sorbitol was the same (39 and 41 , respectively, compared to cells not treated with Doxy). In spite of reduced viability by this criterion, all cells still retained a full redox potential (see below). Differently from GPLs, sphingolipid biosynthesis remained inefficient in Doxy treated 123ty cells even on sorbitol, both ifPLOS Genetics | DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.July 27,7 /Yeast E-MAP for Identification of Membrane Transporters Operating Lipid Flip FlopFig 4. Lipid biosynthesis of 123ty mutants assessed by metabolic labeling. (A ) WT or 123ty cells incubated with or without 10 g/ml Doxy for the indicated times in YPD (A) or YPD + 1.4 M sorbitol (B), were radiolabeled with [3H]-C16:0 for the indicated times at 30 , the lipids were extracted, treated with NaOH as indicated, spotted and separated by TLC using solvent 1. (C) same as in (B) but additional 25 M of cold C16:0 were added during labeling and lipids were separated by TLC with solvent 2. (D) cells grown with or without 10 g/ml Doxy for 16 h in inositol-free SC + 1.4 M sorbitol were labeled with [3H]-myo-inositol for 2 h and the lipids from 10 OD600 of each cell type were processed as in (C). NL = neutral lipids are free FAs, DAG, TAG, ergosterol esters and (acyl-)ceramides. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1006160.g[3H]-C16:0 or [3H]-myo-inositol was used to label cells (Fig 4C and 4D). In Doxy treated 123ty mutants, the incorporation of [3H]-myo-inositol tended to remain in the form of phosphatidylinositol (PI) (Fig 4D). Accumulation of PI is expected when ceramides are not made in sufficient quantity since most PI is normally consumed by Aur1-Kei1 transferring inositol-phosphate from PI to ceramides thus generating inositolphosphorylceramides. Three possible reasons for the reduction of the lipid biosynthesis rate in Doxy treated 123ty mutants came to our mind: 1) The proposed lack of FAD [30] would lead to a severe dysfunction of Ero1 and Pdi1 and a lack of proper oxidative folding of some ER proteins, also affecting enzymes involved in lipid biosynthesis [35]. 2) The reduced activity of the lipid biosynthetic enzymes would be related to the growth arrest the cells undergo when incubated with Doxy and 3) The flc mutants would indeed have a defect in flipping acyl-CoA or GPLs from the cytosol into the lumen of the ER. To get evidence for a flippase defect in flc mutants, we measured the acyl transferase activity of microsomes in presence of very low concentrations of 16:0-CoA hoping that low concentrations of acyl-CoA would make the PA synthesis more dependent on flippa.

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