Ts, symptoms are initially psychiatric with insomnia and agitation, followed by

Ts, symptoms are initially psychiatric with insomnia and TAPI-2 web agitation, followed by dyskinesias, seizures, memory deficits, speech problems and a decrease in the level of consciousness often leading to autonomic instabilities [5?]. In children, the first symptoms are often seizures or dyskinesias, subsequently progressing to develop the other components of the syndrome. Immunotherapy is effective in most patients, limiting the frequency of relapses and lethality [4]. After the first description of NMDAR antibodies, purchase DM-3189 patients initially presenting with encephalitic and epileptic symptoms of unknown origin became more frequently diagnosed with NMDAR encephalitis [3, 4, 8?4]. The gold standard for the detection of disease specific NMDAR antibodies, which is crucial for the diagnosis of NMDAR encephalitis, comprises testing the immunoreactive binding of serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples to fixed and permeabilized NMDAR transfected cells (fixed cell-based assay [CBA]) and immunohistochemistry of frozen sections of 1471-2474-14-48 rat brain optimized for the detection of antibodies against cell surface or synaptic proteins [5, 15]. Alternatively, CBA using live cells with subsequent fixation can be used to detect autoantibodies against NMDAR [7], although the live CBA was suggested to have a lower sensitivity compared to the fixed CBA [16]. NMDAR are heterotetramers composed of three different NMDAR subunits (NR1-3). Whereas NR1 is ubiquitously present and required for expression of functional NMDAR on the cell surface, distinct NR2(A-D) and NR3(A, B) subunits assemble with NR1 [17]. Hippocampal NMDAR are predominantly composed of NR1 in combination with NR2A and/or NR2B, with an age-dependent shift from NR2B to NR2A [18]. It is now well established that antibodies from NMDAR encephalitis patients are of the immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass and react with an N-terminal epitope on the NR1 subunit. The binding to NR1 depends on the conformation of the antigen using either live or fixed NMDAR expressing cells, with or without the presence of NR2 subunits [5, 16, 19]. In the present study we compare another live CBA using HEK293A cells expressing NR1/ NR2A/NR2B containing functional NMDAR followed by microscopic analysis to a flow cytometry (FACS) based analysis of the test, since the evaluation of cell surface staining by fluorescence microscopy is strongly dependent on the experience of the investigators. Furthermore, a FACS based analysis to detect antibodies to surface antigens would enable quantification of antibody levels over time and also to precisely calculate intrathecal synthesis of the antibodies in those diseases. To assess diagnostic accuracy we evaluate the performance of the two detection methods used.Materials and Methods PatientsSerum samples from patients and controls were collected in the Clinical Department of Neurology Innsbruck and the Hospital Cl ic Barcelona between 2005 and 2013, and stored at -80 jir.2010.0097 until use. The discovery group (76 individuals from Innsbruck) consisted of seven patients with NMDAR encephalitis, 37 neurological controls (multiple sclerosis n = 33, clinically isolated syndrome n = 3, viral encephalitis n = 1) and 32 healthy controls. The validation group (32 patients from Barcelona) consisted of 16 patients with NMDAR encephalitis andPLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0122037 March 27,2 /A Live Cell Based Assay for Detection of NMDAR AntibodiesTable 1. Demographic data of patients and controls. Discovery group (n = 7.Ts, symptoms are initially psychiatric with insomnia and agitation, followed by dyskinesias, seizures, memory deficits, speech problems and a decrease in the level of consciousness often leading to autonomic instabilities [5?]. In children, the first symptoms are often seizures or dyskinesias, subsequently progressing to develop the other components of the syndrome. Immunotherapy is effective in most patients, limiting the frequency of relapses and lethality [4]. After the first description of NMDAR antibodies, patients initially presenting with encephalitic and epileptic symptoms of unknown origin became more frequently diagnosed with NMDAR encephalitis [3, 4, 8?4]. The gold standard for the detection of disease specific NMDAR antibodies, which is crucial for the diagnosis of NMDAR encephalitis, comprises testing the immunoreactive binding of serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples to fixed and permeabilized NMDAR transfected cells (fixed cell-based assay [CBA]) and immunohistochemistry of frozen sections of 1471-2474-14-48 rat brain optimized for the detection of antibodies against cell surface or synaptic proteins [5, 15]. Alternatively, CBA using live cells with subsequent fixation can be used to detect autoantibodies against NMDAR [7], although the live CBA was suggested to have a lower sensitivity compared to the fixed CBA [16]. NMDAR are heterotetramers composed of three different NMDAR subunits (NR1-3). Whereas NR1 is ubiquitously present and required for expression of functional NMDAR on the cell surface, distinct NR2(A-D) and NR3(A, B) subunits assemble with NR1 [17]. Hippocampal NMDAR are predominantly composed of NR1 in combination with NR2A and/or NR2B, with an age-dependent shift from NR2B to NR2A [18]. It is now well established that antibodies from NMDAR encephalitis patients are of the immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass and react with an N-terminal epitope on the NR1 subunit. The binding to NR1 depends on the conformation of the antigen using either live or fixed NMDAR expressing cells, with or without the presence of NR2 subunits [5, 16, 19]. In the present study we compare another live CBA using HEK293A cells expressing NR1/ NR2A/NR2B containing functional NMDAR followed by microscopic analysis to a flow cytometry (FACS) based analysis of the test, since the evaluation of cell surface staining by fluorescence microscopy is strongly dependent on the experience of the investigators. Furthermore, a FACS based analysis to detect antibodies to surface antigens would enable quantification of antibody levels over time and also to precisely calculate intrathecal synthesis of the antibodies in those diseases. To assess diagnostic accuracy we evaluate the performance of the two detection methods used.Materials and Methods PatientsSerum samples from patients and controls were collected in the Clinical Department of Neurology Innsbruck and the Hospital Cl ic Barcelona between 2005 and 2013, and stored at -80 jir.2010.0097 until use. The discovery group (76 individuals from Innsbruck) consisted of seven patients with NMDAR encephalitis, 37 neurological controls (multiple sclerosis n = 33, clinically isolated syndrome n = 3, viral encephalitis n = 1) and 32 healthy controls. The validation group (32 patients from Barcelona) consisted of 16 patients with NMDAR encephalitis andPLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0122037 March 27,2 /A Live Cell Based Assay for Detection of NMDAR AntibodiesTable 1. Demographic data of patients and controls. Discovery group (n = 7.

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