Both interrupted and isolated sporadic fast sleep spindles. These results reveal

Both interrupted and isolated sporadic fast sleep spindles. These results reveal an interaction on the time level of about a second, nearly the duration of a KC. Possible interactions of evoked KCs and sleep spindles on a longer time frame were reported 22948146 by Halasz [13] but not confirmed by Bastien et al [36]. Zygierewicz et al [37] described a reduction on spindle power 3.5 s post-stimulus on responses containing evoked KCs, but limited the analysis up to 5 s post-stimulus. A long term depressant effect of spontaneous KCs on spindle generation would suggest that KCs by themselves may tend to disrupt sleep maintenance. The main objective of this study was to assess interactions of spontaneous rather than evoked KCs and spindles on similar time scales of 15 s applying event-related methodology and detailed TFA.Materials and Methods Ethics StatementThis research has been approved by the University of Patras Committee for Ethics in Research. All participants provided written informed consent to the procedures and their data were 47931-85-1 web anonymously processed.Subjects, Procedures and RecordingSeven volunteers (2 males and 5 females, mean age 26.3, range 23 to 33 years) were included in the present study. There was no report of neurological, psychiatric or sleep disorder in their medical history and at the time of study all were in good health and free from any medication. The participants kept a sleep diary for a week, were instructed to refrain from alcohol and caffeine for at least 3 and 1 days prior to the experiment respectively and follow their regular sleep schedule. They had no difficulties in falling or remaining asleep during the night and all were good sleepers. Subjects were instructed to arrive at the laboratory approximately 1 hour prior to their usual bedtime, as calculated on average based on their sleep diaries. Each of them spent the night in an air-conditioned, temperature-controlled, soundproof and dark room. Night sleep recording begun after lights were willingly switched off, and ended with the subjects’ spontaneous wake-up in the morning. Whole night recordings included 58 EEG channels, EOG and EMG as well as triggers from a motiondetector over the bed area. All experimental procedures and technical details of the EEG recording have been described elsewhere [35] ?that study also includes four subjects of the current work.preceding or following) generalized (distinguishable in the EEG all across the midline electrodes) spontaneously occurring Kcomplexes from NREM stage II and III were selected. A further classification scheme was adopted for the needs of the analysis, using a 2-digit binary subscript KCX + denoting absence (0) or existence (1) of coinciding oscillations. The first digit refers to a spindle interrupted by the K-Complex, and the second refers to a spindle starting during the descending Castanospermine manufacturer negative and the positive phase of the K-complex (this is similar to Kokkinos and Kostopoulos [35], where a third digit is used as a reference to an intra-KC oscillation). K-complexes immediately preceding microarousals and awakenings during sleep, as well as Kcomplexes followed by delta waves, were excluded from this study. The sleep spindle was identified as a .500 ms train of <11?16 Hz waves. Two types of sleep spindles were further identified, slow and fast spindles, according to the definitions of Gibbs and Gibbs [4]. Fast spindles (.13Hz) exhibit a symmetric bilateral distribution over centro-parietal areas, while slow spindle.Both interrupted and isolated sporadic fast sleep spindles. These results reveal an interaction on the time level of about a second, nearly the duration of a KC. Possible interactions of evoked KCs and sleep spindles on a longer time frame were reported 22948146 by Halasz [13] but not confirmed by Bastien et al [36]. Zygierewicz et al [37] described a reduction on spindle power 3.5 s post-stimulus on responses containing evoked KCs, but limited the analysis up to 5 s post-stimulus. A long term depressant effect of spontaneous KCs on spindle generation would suggest that KCs by themselves may tend to disrupt sleep maintenance. The main objective of this study was to assess interactions of spontaneous rather than evoked KCs and spindles on similar time scales of 15 s applying event-related methodology and detailed TFA.Materials and Methods Ethics StatementThis research has been approved by the University of Patras Committee for Ethics in Research. All participants provided written informed consent to the procedures and their data were anonymously processed.Subjects, Procedures and RecordingSeven volunteers (2 males and 5 females, mean age 26.3, range 23 to 33 years) were included in the present study. There was no report of neurological, psychiatric or sleep disorder in their medical history and at the time of study all were in good health and free from any medication. The participants kept a sleep diary for a week, were instructed to refrain from alcohol and caffeine for at least 3 and 1 days prior to the experiment respectively and follow their regular sleep schedule. They had no difficulties in falling or remaining asleep during the night and all were good sleepers. Subjects were instructed to arrive at the laboratory approximately 1 hour prior to their usual bedtime, as calculated on average based on their sleep diaries. Each of them spent the night in an air-conditioned, temperature-controlled, soundproof and dark room. Night sleep recording begun after lights were willingly switched off, and ended with the subjects’ spontaneous wake-up in the morning. Whole night recordings included 58 EEG channels, EOG and EMG as well as triggers from a motiondetector over the bed area. All experimental procedures and technical details of the EEG recording have been described elsewhere [35] ?that study also includes four subjects of the current work.preceding or following) generalized (distinguishable in the EEG all across the midline electrodes) spontaneously occurring Kcomplexes from NREM stage II and III were selected. A further classification scheme was adopted for the needs of the analysis, using a 2-digit binary subscript KCX + denoting absence (0) or existence (1) of coinciding oscillations. The first digit refers to a spindle interrupted by the K-Complex, and the second refers to a spindle starting during the descending negative and the positive phase of the K-complex (this is similar to Kokkinos and Kostopoulos [35], where a third digit is used as a reference to an intra-KC oscillation). K-complexes immediately preceding microarousals and awakenings during sleep, as well as Kcomplexes followed by delta waves, were excluded from this study. The sleep spindle was identified as a .500 ms train of <11?16 Hz waves. Two types of sleep spindles were further identified, slow and fast spindles, according to the definitions of Gibbs and Gibbs [4]. Fast spindles (.13Hz) exhibit a symmetric bilateral distribution over centro-parietal areas, while slow spindle.

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