Sease. Endocytosis and autophagy defects, altered oligomerization, abnormalities in muscle membrane

Sease. Endocytosis and autophagy defects, altered oligomerization, abnormalities in muscle membrane structure development and maintenance, and effects at the neuromuscular junction are all important mechanisms [29,30,34,35] to consider and investigate to determine how DNM2 contributes to neuromuscular disorders. Taken together, our findings show that dnm2 and dnm2-like are highly conserved orthologs to human DNM2 are independently required for normal embryonic development in the zebrafish. It will be important to further examine these two genes in order to understand their specific cellular function in the zebrafish. The Pentagastrin zebrafish provides an excellent system for examining aspects of membrane trafficking in vivo, and understanding the zebrafish dynamin-2 homologs will allow a more precise analysis of these pathways.Supporting InformationFigure SZebrafish dnm2 whole mount in situ hybridization. (A) Whole mount in situ of 1 dpf embryos reveals ubiquitous expression of dnm2. (B) Sense probe to dnm2 was used as a background control. (TIF)AcknowledgmentsThe authors would like to thank Angela Busta for expert zebrafish care and maintenance. We also thank Dr. Chi-Bin Chien for kindly providing the Tol2kit constructs.Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: EMG JJD ELF. Performed the experiments: EMG AED AT-G CB YH. Analyzed the data: EMG AED SAS JJD ELF. Wrote the paper: EMG SAS JJD ELF.Dynamin-2 and Zebrafish Development
The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has been an (-)-Calyculin A cost increasingly popular experimental model in biological research in the past two decades, not only in developmental biology but also in medical research. The zebrafish model has many advantages in laboratory research, e.g. transparent embryos, high fecundity with hundreds of embryos from each single spawning on a daily basis, low cost and space requirement for aquarium maintenance, etc. As a vertebrate model, the zebrafish offers more relevant information to human health than invertebrate models such as Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans [1]. Compared to in vitro cell based studies, the zebrafish serves as an authentic in vivo model in wholeorganism physiological 23727046 context. The value of the zebrafish model has also been increasingly recognized in toxicology and environmental science [2]. Now the zebrafish also emerges as an excellent toxicological model. In 2002, Nagal has described a standard DarT (Danio rerio Teratogenic assay), in which wild type zebrafish embryos are used to monitor several lethal and sublethal endpoints for evaluating the potential toxicity of chemicals at different developmental stages, and the assay covers essentially all major organs and systems in zebrafish [3]. Since then, it has been an established zebrafishembryo test recommended by OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) and it is also widely used in chemical screening [4]. It is very convenient to screen zebrafish embryos/larvae in a microtiter plate with a small quantity (i.e., mg/L, mg/L) of candidate chemicals. Moreover, it has the potential to develop medium- to high-throughput screening platforms with embryos/larvae in a single well of standard 6-, 12-, 24- or 96-well plates [5]. In recent years, the zebrafish has also been increasingly used as a predictive model for assessing druginduced toxicity, including cardiotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, neurotoxicity and developmental toxicity assessment [4,6,7,8,9]. GFP or other fluorescent protein transgenic zebrafish have p.Sease. Endocytosis and autophagy defects, altered oligomerization, abnormalities in muscle membrane structure development and maintenance, and effects at the neuromuscular junction are all important mechanisms [29,30,34,35] to consider and investigate to determine how DNM2 contributes to neuromuscular disorders. Taken together, our findings show that dnm2 and dnm2-like are highly conserved orthologs to human DNM2 are independently required for normal embryonic development in the zebrafish. It will be important to further examine these two genes in order to understand their specific cellular function in the zebrafish. The zebrafish provides an excellent system for examining aspects of membrane trafficking in vivo, and understanding the zebrafish dynamin-2 homologs will allow a more precise analysis of these pathways.Supporting InformationFigure SZebrafish dnm2 whole mount in situ hybridization. (A) Whole mount in situ of 1 dpf embryos reveals ubiquitous expression of dnm2. (B) Sense probe to dnm2 was used as a background control. (TIF)AcknowledgmentsThe authors would like to thank Angela Busta for expert zebrafish care and maintenance. We also thank Dr. Chi-Bin Chien for kindly providing the Tol2kit constructs.Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: EMG JJD ELF. Performed the experiments: EMG AED AT-G CB YH. Analyzed the data: EMG AED SAS JJD ELF. Wrote the paper: EMG SAS JJD ELF.Dynamin-2 and Zebrafish Development
The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has been an increasingly popular experimental model in biological research in the past two decades, not only in developmental biology but also in medical research. The zebrafish model has many advantages in laboratory research, e.g. transparent embryos, high fecundity with hundreds of embryos from each single spawning on a daily basis, low cost and space requirement for aquarium maintenance, etc. As a vertebrate model, the zebrafish offers more relevant information to human health than invertebrate models such as Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans [1]. Compared to in vitro cell based studies, the zebrafish serves as an authentic in vivo model in wholeorganism physiological 23727046 context. The value of the zebrafish model has also been increasingly recognized in toxicology and environmental science [2]. Now the zebrafish also emerges as an excellent toxicological model. In 2002, Nagal has described a standard DarT (Danio rerio Teratogenic assay), in which wild type zebrafish embryos are used to monitor several lethal and sublethal endpoints for evaluating the potential toxicity of chemicals at different developmental stages, and the assay covers essentially all major organs and systems in zebrafish [3]. Since then, it has been an established zebrafishembryo test recommended by OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) and it is also widely used in chemical screening [4]. It is very convenient to screen zebrafish embryos/larvae in a microtiter plate with a small quantity (i.e., mg/L, mg/L) of candidate chemicals. Moreover, it has the potential to develop medium- to high-throughput screening platforms with embryos/larvae in a single well of standard 6-, 12-, 24- or 96-well plates [5]. In recent years, the zebrafish has also been increasingly used as a predictive model for assessing druginduced toxicity, including cardiotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, neurotoxicity and developmental toxicity assessment [4,6,7,8,9]. GFP or other fluorescent protein transgenic zebrafish have p.

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