Il 4DPI, open triangle) or 100 mg/head

Il 4DPI, open triangle) or 100 mg/head 1516647 (daily until 4DPI, closed circle) or PBS control (daily until 4DPI, open circle). Survival rate of these mice is shown (N = 5). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055321.ga FACS Canto (BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA). Fluorescent filter for phycoerythrin was used as depletion of auto-fluorescent cells in samples. Allophycocyanin (APC) or fluorescein (FITC)-conjugated anti-CD3 (500-A2), anti-CD4 (YTS191.1), anti-CD8 (KT15), APC-streptavidin and 7-AAD staining solution were purchased from Beckman coulter purchase PHCCC company (Fullerton, CA). FITC-antiCD45R/B220 (RA3-6B2), FITC-anti-Ly6G (1A8), Alexa488-antipodoplanin/gp36 (8.1.1), PD1-PDL1 inhibitor 1 site FITC-anti-CD11c (N418) and PE/Cy7anti-F4/80 (BM8) were from Biolegend company (San Diego, CA). Biotin-anti-CD95L (MFL3) was from eBioscience company. Purified anti-CD16/32 (2.4G2), biotin-anti-CD95 (Jo2), FITCanti-CD-74 (In-1) and rat or hamster IgG isotype control were from BD Biosciences company (Oxford, UK).centrifuged at 3006g for 10 min at 4uC, and the cell-free supernatant was stored at 280uC. The amount of IFN-b was assessed by mouse IFN-beta ELISA kit (R D systems, Abingdon, UK).Results Prevention of the Interaction of Fas with FasL Reduces the Mortality of Mice Infected with Influenza A VirusTo evaluate the functional significance of FasL concerning to the severity of illness induced by influenza A virus infection in B6mice, the survival rates of B6-gld/gld mice were compared with that of control B6 mice after infection with titers (105 or 102 pfu/ head) of PR/8 virus. In control B6 mice intranasally (i.n.) infected with 105 but not 102 pfu/head of the virus, a reduction of survival rate was highly observed at 6 days post infection (DPI) and all these mice were dead at 8DPI. In contrast, 60 of the B6-gld/gld mice infected with 105 pfu/head of the virus survived until 19 days after the infection (Fig. 1A). In addition, treatment with recombinant decoy receptor for FasL, which consisted of the extracellular region of mouse Fas fused with the Fc region ofAssessment of IFN- ?Concentration in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid (BALF)At the indicated day after infection, mice were sacrificed by cervical dislocation, and the lungs of mice were lavaged with 500 ml of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, without calcium and magnesium, pH 7.4, and prewarmed at 37uC). The uid was infused, recovered and placed immediately on ice. The BALF wasImportance of Type I IFN and FasL in InfluenzaFigure 2. Virus titer in the lungs of mice does not correlate with the severity of the influenza infection. B6 mice (5 mice/group) were infected with 105 (closed triangle) or 102 (open square) pfu/head of the PR/8 virus. Changes in body weight (A) or survival rate (B) of these mice were shown. At the indicated days after the infection, the virus titer in the lungs of mice infected with 105 (closed) or 102 (open) pfu/head of PR/8 virus was assessed by plaque assay (C, N = 3/each time point). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055321.ghuman IgG (Fas-Fc) protected B6 mice against lethal infection of PR/8 virus in a dose dependent manner (Fig. 1B). These findings suggested that the signal mediated by the interaction of FasL with Fas is critical to determine the survival rate of mice lethally infected with the PR/8 virus.Expression of FasL but not Fas Gene in the Lung Correlates with the Severity of Illness in Mice after Influenza A Virus InfectionIt is known that the initial infected titer of the virus regulates the severity of illness such.Il 4DPI, open triangle) or 100 mg/head 1516647 (daily until 4DPI, closed circle) or PBS control (daily until 4DPI, open circle). Survival rate of these mice is shown (N = 5). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055321.ga FACS Canto (BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA). Fluorescent filter for phycoerythrin was used as depletion of auto-fluorescent cells in samples. Allophycocyanin (APC) or fluorescein (FITC)-conjugated anti-CD3 (500-A2), anti-CD4 (YTS191.1), anti-CD8 (KT15), APC-streptavidin and 7-AAD staining solution were purchased from Beckman coulter company (Fullerton, CA). FITC-antiCD45R/B220 (RA3-6B2), FITC-anti-Ly6G (1A8), Alexa488-antipodoplanin/gp36 (8.1.1), FITC-anti-CD11c (N418) and PE/Cy7anti-F4/80 (BM8) were from Biolegend company (San Diego, CA). Biotin-anti-CD95L (MFL3) was from eBioscience company. Purified anti-CD16/32 (2.4G2), biotin-anti-CD95 (Jo2), FITCanti-CD-74 (In-1) and rat or hamster IgG isotype control were from BD Biosciences company (Oxford, UK).centrifuged at 3006g for 10 min at 4uC, and the cell-free supernatant was stored at 280uC. The amount of IFN-b was assessed by mouse IFN-beta ELISA kit (R D systems, Abingdon, UK).Results Prevention of the Interaction of Fas with FasL Reduces the Mortality of Mice Infected with Influenza A VirusTo evaluate the functional significance of FasL concerning to the severity of illness induced by influenza A virus infection in B6mice, the survival rates of B6-gld/gld mice were compared with that of control B6 mice after infection with titers (105 or 102 pfu/ head) of PR/8 virus. In control B6 mice intranasally (i.n.) infected with 105 but not 102 pfu/head of the virus, a reduction of survival rate was highly observed at 6 days post infection (DPI) and all these mice were dead at 8DPI. In contrast, 60 of the B6-gld/gld mice infected with 105 pfu/head of the virus survived until 19 days after the infection (Fig. 1A). In addition, treatment with recombinant decoy receptor for FasL, which consisted of the extracellular region of mouse Fas fused with the Fc region ofAssessment of IFN- ?Concentration in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid (BALF)At the indicated day after infection, mice were sacrificed by cervical dislocation, and the lungs of mice were lavaged with 500 ml of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, without calcium and magnesium, pH 7.4, and prewarmed at 37uC). The uid was infused, recovered and placed immediately on ice. The BALF wasImportance of Type I IFN and FasL in InfluenzaFigure 2. Virus titer in the lungs of mice does not correlate with the severity of the influenza infection. B6 mice (5 mice/group) were infected with 105 (closed triangle) or 102 (open square) pfu/head of the PR/8 virus. Changes in body weight (A) or survival rate (B) of these mice were shown. At the indicated days after the infection, the virus titer in the lungs of mice infected with 105 (closed) or 102 (open) pfu/head of PR/8 virus was assessed by plaque assay (C, N = 3/each time point). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055321.ghuman IgG (Fas-Fc) protected B6 mice against lethal infection of PR/8 virus in a dose dependent manner (Fig. 1B). These findings suggested that the signal mediated by the interaction of FasL with Fas is critical to determine the survival rate of mice lethally infected with the PR/8 virus.Expression of FasL but not Fas Gene in the Lung Correlates with the Severity of Illness in Mice after Influenza A Virus InfectionIt is known that the initial infected titer of the virus regulates the severity of illness such.

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