Ent (p-NFM) on cryosections of cultures derived from protocol A (DIV

Ent (p-NFM) on cryosections of cultures derived from protocol A (DIV 8) and protocol B (DIV 14). Scale bar: 100 mm. (Right panel) Representative western blots with data quantification of whole-cell lysates for p-NFM for protocol A (DIV 8, above) and protocol B (DIV 14, below). Actin was used as a KDM5A-IN-1 loading control. The quantifications of p-NFM are expressed as percentage of respective controls. The values represent the mean 6 SD from 3 replicates taken from 2 independent experiments. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053735.gOligodendrocytes. 3-OHGA-exposure, and to a lesser extent GA-exposure, resulted in a substantial decrease of MBP staining under protocol B (DIV 14) (Figure 4, left panel). Western blot analysis confirmed decreased MBP expression under the same conditions (Figure 4, right panel). We could not see any effect for MBP staining in protocol A since the expression of MBP protein is very low in the immature developmental stages (data not shown). In order to discriminate whether the observed 69-25-0 web signal loss is a result of oligodendrocytic death or altered differentiation and/or myelination, we performed immunohistochemical staining for GalC, one of the earliest markers of oligodendrocytes. Only slight reduction of GalC signal was observed in the cultures treated with 3-OHGA on DIV 8 (Figure 4, left panel) and no difference was seen with any of the two metabolites on DIV 14 (data not shown). Microglia. The presence of microglia was tested by immunostaining for isolectin B4 at DIV 8. No interesting changes were observed (data not shown).observed in the medium of treated DIV 14 cultures. Lactate release into medium remained unchanged in immature DIV 8 cultures (Figure 5B). The lactate/pyruvate ratio was increased in the medium of DIV 14 3-OHGA-exposed cultures (55.4 under 1 mM 3-OHGA versus 26.2 in controls; mean of duplicates for each condition). Ammonium and Glutamine. A massive increase in ammonium concentrations was measured in the culture media after exposure to 3-OHGA and GA under both protocols (DIV 8 and 14) (Figure 5C). Among amino acids measured in the culture medium, a significant decrease was observed on glutamine levels in all cultures exposed to GA and 3-OHGA under both protocols (Figure 5D).Increased Cell Death in Developing Brain Cells After Exposure to GA and 3-OHGALactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was measured in culture medium and was significantly increased after 3-OHGA- and GA-exposure in both protocols (DIV 8 and DIV 14) (Figure 6C). This observation indicated an increase of cell death in these cultures. To evaluate cell death, we performed TUNEL, DAPI and activated caspase-3 immunofluorescence staining. DAPI staining did not show an increased appearance of nuclear fragmentation and apoptotic bodies in cultures under both protocols, as compared to control (data not shown). Immunofluorescence staining for cleaved caspase-3 revealed no difference in theBiochemical Parameters in Culture Media after Exposure 12926553 to GA and 3-OHGAGlucose and Lactate. As compared to controls, GA and 3OHGA exposure caused a significant decrease in the glucose levels under protocol B (DIV 14), while the glucose levels of immature cultures (protocol A, DIV 8) were not significantly changed (Figure 5A). In parallel, a significant increase in lactate levels wasBrain Cell Damage in Glutaric Aciduria Type IFigure 3. Effects of GA and 3-OHGA on astrocytes. (Left panel) Immunohistochemical staining for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) on cryosections of cu.Ent (p-NFM) on cryosections of cultures derived from protocol A (DIV 8) and protocol B (DIV 14). Scale bar: 100 mm. (Right panel) Representative western blots with data quantification of whole-cell lysates for p-NFM for protocol A (DIV 8, above) and protocol B (DIV 14, below). Actin was used as a loading control. The quantifications of p-NFM are expressed as percentage of respective controls. The values represent the mean 6 SD from 3 replicates taken from 2 independent experiments. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053735.gOligodendrocytes. 3-OHGA-exposure, and to a lesser extent GA-exposure, resulted in a substantial decrease of MBP staining under protocol B (DIV 14) (Figure 4, left panel). Western blot analysis confirmed decreased MBP expression under the same conditions (Figure 4, right panel). We could not see any effect for MBP staining in protocol A since the expression of MBP protein is very low in the immature developmental stages (data not shown). In order to discriminate whether the observed signal loss is a result of oligodendrocytic death or altered differentiation and/or myelination, we performed immunohistochemical staining for GalC, one of the earliest markers of oligodendrocytes. Only slight reduction of GalC signal was observed in the cultures treated with 3-OHGA on DIV 8 (Figure 4, left panel) and no difference was seen with any of the two metabolites on DIV 14 (data not shown). Microglia. The presence of microglia was tested by immunostaining for isolectin B4 at DIV 8. No interesting changes were observed (data not shown).observed in the medium of treated DIV 14 cultures. Lactate release into medium remained unchanged in immature DIV 8 cultures (Figure 5B). The lactate/pyruvate ratio was increased in the medium of DIV 14 3-OHGA-exposed cultures (55.4 under 1 mM 3-OHGA versus 26.2 in controls; mean of duplicates for each condition). Ammonium and Glutamine. A massive increase in ammonium concentrations was measured in the culture media after exposure to 3-OHGA and GA under both protocols (DIV 8 and 14) (Figure 5C). Among amino acids measured in the culture medium, a significant decrease was observed on glutamine levels in all cultures exposed to GA and 3-OHGA under both protocols (Figure 5D).Increased Cell Death in Developing Brain Cells After Exposure to GA and 3-OHGALactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was measured in culture medium and was significantly increased after 3-OHGA- and GA-exposure in both protocols (DIV 8 and DIV 14) (Figure 6C). This observation indicated an increase of cell death in these cultures. To evaluate cell death, we performed TUNEL, DAPI and activated caspase-3 immunofluorescence staining. DAPI staining did not show an increased appearance of nuclear fragmentation and apoptotic bodies in cultures under both protocols, as compared to control (data not shown). Immunofluorescence staining for cleaved caspase-3 revealed no difference in theBiochemical Parameters in Culture Media after Exposure 12926553 to GA and 3-OHGAGlucose and Lactate. As compared to controls, GA and 3OHGA exposure caused a significant decrease in the glucose levels under protocol B (DIV 14), while the glucose levels of immature cultures (protocol A, DIV 8) were not significantly changed (Figure 5A). In parallel, a significant increase in lactate levels wasBrain Cell Damage in Glutaric Aciduria Type IFigure 3. Effects of GA and 3-OHGA on astrocytes. (Left panel) Immunohistochemical staining for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) on cryosections of cu.

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