Developed that alkaline grown L. monocytogenes strain EGD-e would make the

Developed that alkaline grown L. monocytogenes strain EGD-e would make the physiological adjustments necessary for transition from aerobic to anaerobic growth and, consequently, would show decreased lag times if subsequently challenged by an abrupt shift to low oxygen tension. This could have important implications for the packaging of fresh and ready-to-eat foods under reduced oxygen conditions.Materials and Methods Bacterial Strain and Adaptation to Alkaline Tramiprosate Culture ConditionsL. monocytogenes strain ATCC BAA-679 (EGD-e) was recovered from frozen (280uC) storage (Protect microbial preservation system; OXOID, Australia) and grown in 10 mL of Tris-buffered brain-heart infusion broth (CM225, `BHI'; OXOID, Australia), pH 7.3, Sudan I incubated aerobically with shaking (50 rpm) at 37uC forAlkaline Induced Anaerobiosis in L. monocytogenestwenty hours. The strain was subcultured into fresh Tris-buffered BHI (pH 7.3), incubated as previously described, and the resulting starter culture used to inoculate subsequent cultures. Fresh 9.9 mL Tris-buffered BHI broths were prepared where the pH was adjusted to 7.3 or 9.0 (60.2) through addition of 4 M NaOH (Sigma-Aldrich, Castle Hill, Australia). After autoclaving, the pH of both media (two6pH7.3, and two6pH9.0) was confirmed using an Orion 250A pH meter (Orion Research Inc, USA), and further adjusted using sterile NaOH or HCl if required. A 100 mL aliquot of the starter culture was transferred to the fresh broths and grown to exponential phase (OD600 <0.4) aerobically with shaking at 37uC. 100 mL aliquots of these were transferred to fresh 9.9 mL BHI broths (with pH adjusted accordingly) and again incubated aerobically with shaking at 37uC. This was repeated three times to acclimatise the cultures to the growth conditions. The final pH for the pH 7.3 and 9.0 cultures was 7.1 and 8.9 respectively.MudPIT AnalysisMudPIT was used to compare the protein expression profile of L. monocytogenes strain EGD-e following adaptation to growth at pH9.0 (60.2). Replicate 10 mL pH7.3 and 9.0 adapted cultures were prepared, incubated at 37uC, and harvested at late exponential phase (OD600 <0.5?.6; Figure 1) for proteomic analysis. The cultures were centrifuged at 10,0006g for 10 min at 4uC and the supernatant was discarded. The pellets were resuspended in 500 mL of phosphate buffered saline (PBS; pH7.3 and pH9.060.2 respectively) and transferred into 1.5 mL Eppendorf Protein Lobind microcentrifuge tubes (Sigma-Aldrich, Castle Hill, NSW, Australia). The tubes were centrifuged at 14,0006g for 5 min at 4uC and the PBS supernatant was discarded. The PBS wash was repeated twice. The cell pellets were frozen using liquid nitrogen then thawed on ice for <15 min. Soluble proteins were extracted from the cell pellets using a Qproteome bacterial protein preparation kit (37900; Qiagen Pty. Ltd., Victoria, Australia) and approximate concentrations of the protein extracts was determined using a Pierce BCA Protein Assay kit (ThermoFisher Scientific, Victoria, Australia) according to manufacturer instructions. Volumes of protein extract containing <50 mg of protein were transferred to clean Lobind microcentrifuge tubes, frozen with liquid nitrogen, and freeze-dried for <8 h using a Dynavac mini ultra-cold vacuum freeze drier (Technolab, Kingston, Tasmania, Australia). The concentrated protein samples were digested with porcine trypsin (Sigma-Aldrich, Castle Hill, NSW, Australia) as described previously [13]. After digestion, the samples.Developed that alkaline grown L. monocytogenes strain EGD-e would make the physiological adjustments necessary for transition from aerobic to anaerobic growth and, consequently, would show decreased lag times if subsequently challenged by an abrupt shift to low oxygen tension. This could have important implications for the packaging of fresh and ready-to-eat foods under reduced oxygen conditions.Materials and Methods Bacterial Strain and Adaptation to Alkaline Culture ConditionsL. monocytogenes strain ATCC BAA-679 (EGD-e) was recovered from frozen (280uC) storage (Protect microbial preservation system; OXOID, Australia) and grown in 10 mL of Tris-buffered brain-heart infusion broth (CM225, `BHI'; OXOID, Australia), pH 7.3, incubated aerobically with shaking (50 rpm) at 37uC forAlkaline Induced Anaerobiosis in L. monocytogenestwenty hours. The strain was subcultured into fresh Tris-buffered BHI (pH 7.3), incubated as previously described, and the resulting starter culture used to inoculate subsequent cultures. Fresh 9.9 mL Tris-buffered BHI broths were prepared where the pH was adjusted to 7.3 or 9.0 (60.2) through addition of 4 M NaOH (Sigma-Aldrich, Castle Hill, Australia). After autoclaving, the pH of both media (two6pH7.3, and two6pH9.0) was confirmed using an Orion 250A pH meter (Orion Research Inc, USA), and further adjusted using sterile NaOH or HCl if required. A 100 mL aliquot of the starter culture was transferred to the fresh broths and grown to exponential phase (OD600 <0.4) aerobically with shaking at 37uC. 100 mL aliquots of these were transferred to fresh 9.9 mL BHI broths (with pH adjusted accordingly) and again incubated aerobically with shaking at 37uC. This was repeated three times to acclimatise the cultures to the growth conditions. The final pH for the pH 7.3 and 9.0 cultures was 7.1 and 8.9 respectively.MudPIT AnalysisMudPIT was used to compare the protein expression profile of L. monocytogenes strain EGD-e following adaptation to growth at pH9.0 (60.2). Replicate 10 mL pH7.3 and 9.0 adapted cultures were prepared, incubated at 37uC, and harvested at late exponential phase (OD600 <0.5?.6; Figure 1) for proteomic analysis. The cultures were centrifuged at 10,0006g for 10 min at 4uC and the supernatant was discarded. The pellets were resuspended in 500 mL of phosphate buffered saline (PBS; pH7.3 and pH9.060.2 respectively) and transferred into 1.5 mL Eppendorf Protein Lobind microcentrifuge tubes (Sigma-Aldrich, Castle Hill, NSW, Australia). The tubes were centrifuged at 14,0006g for 5 min at 4uC and the PBS supernatant was discarded. The PBS wash was repeated twice. The cell pellets were frozen using liquid nitrogen then thawed on ice for <15 min. Soluble proteins were extracted from the cell pellets using a Qproteome bacterial protein preparation kit (37900; Qiagen Pty. Ltd., Victoria, Australia) and approximate concentrations of the protein extracts was determined using a Pierce BCA Protein Assay kit (ThermoFisher Scientific, Victoria, Australia) according to manufacturer instructions. Volumes of protein extract containing <50 mg of protein were transferred to clean Lobind microcentrifuge tubes, frozen with liquid nitrogen, and freeze-dried for <8 h using a Dynavac mini ultra-cold vacuum freeze drier (Technolab, Kingston, Tasmania, Australia). The concentrated protein samples were digested with porcine trypsin (Sigma-Aldrich, Castle Hill, NSW, Australia) as described previously [13]. After digestion, the samples.

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