Row is placed on the edge of CD44-positive and negative

Row is placed on the edge of CD44-positive and negative regions. Scale bars, 200 mm. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053109.gcells decreased in rat postnatal cerebellum during development [33]. Next, we focused on astrocyte-lineage cells. Consistent with our previous report, most of the CD44-positive cells in mouse cerebellum co-expressed GLAST at P3 (Fig. 6A ). It is difficult, however, to distinguish between immature astrocytes and neural stem/progenitor cells in P3 cerebellum, as many Sox2-positive cells also expressed GLAST (Supporting Figure S1A ). The CD44/GLAST-positive cells were detected only in the PCL and WM at P7 (Fig. 6D ). The CD44/GLAST double-positive cells that had their cell bodies in the PCL extended radial processes to the pial surface, showing these cells as immature Bergmann glia (Fig. 6G , Supporting Figure S2, asterisk showed the cell body of CD44/GLAST double-positive Bergmann glia), whereas the CD44/GLAST double-positive cells located in the WM were immature fibrous astrocytes (Fig. 6D ). FACS-sorted CD44positive cells (Fig. 4) were immunostained for GLAST and GFAP. The percentage of CD44-positive cells that expressed GLAST was high at P3 and gradually decreased during postnatal development(Fig. 6V). In contrast, CD44/GFAP-positive cells were rarely observed at P3 (Fig. 6J ). CD44/GFAP-positive cells were observed in the PCL and WM at P7 (Fig. 6M ). CD44/GFAPpositive cells were detected only in the WM, and not in the PCL, at P14 (Fig. 6P ). These results indicate that only fibrous astrocytes expressed CD44 after astrocyte maturation. To determine whether cells of non-astrocytic lineage express CD44 or not, we IQ-1 custom synthesis examined oligodendrocyte-lineage cells. Approximately half of the CD44-positive cells coexpressed Olig2, which is a marker for oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), at P3 and P7 (Fig. 7A and 7J). In addition, the number of CD44positive OPCs decreased during development (Fig. 7J). The percentage of CD44-positive cells that expressed NG2 (an OPC marker) was similar to that of CD44/Olig2 double-positive cells (Fig. 7J). Because some of NG2-positive cells have GLAST expression at P3 (Supporting Figure S1E ), immature astrocytes and OPCs cannot be distinguished completely at P3 cerebellum. However, none of the CD44-positive cells were positive for CC1 (an oligodendrocyte marker) at P14 (Fig. 7G ). CD44-positiveCD44 Expression in Developing CerebellumFigure 3. CD44 expression in postnatal mouse cerebellum at P3, P7 and P14. A : Detection of CD44 mRNA by in situ hybridization. B': High magnification of CD44 mRNA signals in PCL at P7. D : Detection of CD44 by PE-labeled anti-CD44 antibody. G : High magnification of figures D . Scale bars, 200 mm (A ) or 50 mm (G ). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053109.gcells that expressed O4 (an immature oligodendrocyte marker) were rarely detected throughout postnatal development (Fig. 7J). These results indicate that CD44 was transiently expressed in OPCs, and its expression was shut off during oligodendrocyte differentiation. We further analyzed CD44 expression in the neuronal 11967625 lineage. Few cerebellar neurons expressed CD44 at P3 (Fig. 8M); however, most of the immature Purkinje neurons expressed CD44 at P7 (Fig. 8A ). Most of Immature granule neurons did not express CD44 (Fig. 8D ), but some immature granule neurons expressed CD44 (Fig. 8D and 8G). At P7, about 40 of CD44-positive cells isolated by FACS expressed NeuN (Fig. 8M). As it is possible to purchase Lixisenatide isolate the cells expressing CD4.Row is placed on the edge of CD44-positive and negative regions. Scale bars, 200 mm. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053109.gcells decreased in rat postnatal cerebellum during development [33]. Next, we focused on astrocyte-lineage cells. Consistent with our previous report, most of the CD44-positive cells in mouse cerebellum co-expressed GLAST at P3 (Fig. 6A ). It is difficult, however, to distinguish between immature astrocytes and neural stem/progenitor cells in P3 cerebellum, as many Sox2-positive cells also expressed GLAST (Supporting Figure S1A ). The CD44/GLAST-positive cells were detected only in the PCL and WM at P7 (Fig. 6D ). The CD44/GLAST double-positive cells that had their cell bodies in the PCL extended radial processes to the pial surface, showing these cells as immature Bergmann glia (Fig. 6G , Supporting Figure S2, asterisk showed the cell body of CD44/GLAST double-positive Bergmann glia), whereas the CD44/GLAST double-positive cells located in the WM were immature fibrous astrocytes (Fig. 6D ). FACS-sorted CD44positive cells (Fig. 4) were immunostained for GLAST and GFAP. The percentage of CD44-positive cells that expressed GLAST was high at P3 and gradually decreased during postnatal development(Fig. 6V). In contrast, CD44/GFAP-positive cells were rarely observed at P3 (Fig. 6J ). CD44/GFAP-positive cells were observed in the PCL and WM at P7 (Fig. 6M ). CD44/GFAPpositive cells were detected only in the WM, and not in the PCL, at P14 (Fig. 6P ). These results indicate that only fibrous astrocytes expressed CD44 after astrocyte maturation. To determine whether cells of non-astrocytic lineage express CD44 or not, we examined oligodendrocyte-lineage cells. Approximately half of the CD44-positive cells coexpressed Olig2, which is a marker for oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), at P3 and P7 (Fig. 7A and 7J). In addition, the number of CD44positive OPCs decreased during development (Fig. 7J). The percentage of CD44-positive cells that expressed NG2 (an OPC marker) was similar to that of CD44/Olig2 double-positive cells (Fig. 7J). Because some of NG2-positive cells have GLAST expression at P3 (Supporting Figure S1E ), immature astrocytes and OPCs cannot be distinguished completely at P3 cerebellum. However, none of the CD44-positive cells were positive for CC1 (an oligodendrocyte marker) at P14 (Fig. 7G ). CD44-positiveCD44 Expression in Developing CerebellumFigure 3. CD44 expression in postnatal mouse cerebellum at P3, P7 and P14. A : Detection of CD44 mRNA by in situ hybridization. B': High magnification of CD44 mRNA signals in PCL at P7. D : Detection of CD44 by PE-labeled anti-CD44 antibody. G : High magnification of figures D . Scale bars, 200 mm (A ) or 50 mm (G ). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053109.gcells that expressed O4 (an immature oligodendrocyte marker) were rarely detected throughout postnatal development (Fig. 7J). These results indicate that CD44 was transiently expressed in OPCs, and its expression was shut off during oligodendrocyte differentiation. We further analyzed CD44 expression in the neuronal 11967625 lineage. Few cerebellar neurons expressed CD44 at P3 (Fig. 8M); however, most of the immature Purkinje neurons expressed CD44 at P7 (Fig. 8A ). Most of Immature granule neurons did not express CD44 (Fig. 8D ), but some immature granule neurons expressed CD44 (Fig. 8D and 8G). At P7, about 40 of CD44-positive cells isolated by FACS expressed NeuN (Fig. 8M). As it is possible to isolate the cells expressing CD4.

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