Ratory chain complexes in the Gcdh2/2 mouse during metabolic crisis [22], other

Ratory chain complexes in the Gcdh2/2 mouse during metabolic crisis [22], other publications confirmed an impact of GA and/or 3-OHGA on the mitochondrial energy metabolism [23,24]. TCA and respiratory chain dysfunction is also assumed by the “toxic metabolite” hypothesis that postulates an interference of these organic acids with mitochondrial energy metabolism [23]. This is consistent with the finding of mainly non-apoptotic (likely necrotic) cell death, which has been shown to be prevalent in animal models of mitochondrial dysfunction [25] as well as in neuropathology of humans with Leigh syndrome [26]. Our previous results on MedChemExpress EAI045 ammonium toxicity combined with the new results on our GA-I in vitro model suggest the following threestep model for brain damage in GA-I: (i) 3-OHGA (and GA) cause via a so far unknown mechanism massive cell death of astrocytes; (ii) loss of the astrocytic subpopulation results in deficiency of glutamine synthetase activity leading to ammonium accumulation; and (iii) ammonium accumulation results in secondary death of other brain cells (neurons and oligodendrocytes).ConclusionsIn an in vitro brain cell culture model for GA-I, we confirm the toxicity of the two main accumulating metabolites, GA and 3OHGA, on brain cells; the latter being the most deleterious substance. Our data allow the following conclusions: (i) 3-OHGA leads to massive cell death most likely of non-apoptotic origin; (ii) among the different cellular subpopulations in our model, astrocytes appeared to be the most vulnerable cells; (iii) ammonium accumulation might be secondary to the loss of the astrocytic enzyme glutamine synthetase and play a role in purchase Empagliflozin GA-Irelated brain damage; (iv) indirect signs of impaired energy metabolism seem to support previous studies suggesting participation of this mechanism in the neuropathogenesis of GA-I. We suggest a three-step model for brain damage in GA-I. This model, if confirmed in vivo, may explain why investigation of direct neurotoxicity of GA and 3-OHGA has been difficult so far. It may open new therapeutic approaches for neuroprotection focused on the inhibition/detoxification of intracerebrally-produced ammonium. We might thus be one step closer to the prevention of the destructive processes that cause permanent handicap in GA-I.Figure 7. Expression of GCDH in neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. In situ hybridization for GCDH mRNA in adult rat brain (16 mm cryosections), co-labeled by immunohistochemistry for specific markers of neurons (NeuN), astrocytes (GFAP) or oligodendrocytes (MBP). Top and central panels show expression of GCDH mRNA (blue signal) in cortical neurons (top; NeuN, red signal), while GCDH mRNA could not be detected in cortical astrocytes (central; GFAP, red signal, arrows pointing at astrocytic cell bodies). Bottom panel shows GCDH mRNA (blue signal) in granular neurons of cerebellum, while GCDH mRNA appears absent from adjacent oligodendrocytes in white matter of cerebellum (bottom; MBP, red signal). Scale bar: 100 mm. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053735.gexpressed in astrocytes. In previous studies we have shown that ammonium concentrations up to 5 mM are not toxic for astrocytes, but induce cell death in neurons and oligodendrocytes [18]. Thus, we can conclude that the 3-OHGA-induced primary astrocytic death is not related to high ammonium levels, but might be secondarily followed by neuronal and oligodendrocytic death triggered by ammonium accumulation. This hypothesis isAck.Ratory chain complexes in the Gcdh2/2 mouse during metabolic crisis [22], other publications confirmed an impact of GA and/or 3-OHGA on the mitochondrial energy metabolism [23,24]. TCA and respiratory chain dysfunction is also assumed by the “toxic metabolite” hypothesis that postulates an interference of these organic acids with mitochondrial energy metabolism [23]. This is consistent with the finding of mainly non-apoptotic (likely necrotic) cell death, which has been shown to be prevalent in animal models of mitochondrial dysfunction [25] as well as in neuropathology of humans with Leigh syndrome [26]. Our previous results on ammonium toxicity combined with the new results on our GA-I in vitro model suggest the following threestep model for brain damage in GA-I: (i) 3-OHGA (and GA) cause via a so far unknown mechanism massive cell death of astrocytes; (ii) loss of the astrocytic subpopulation results in deficiency of glutamine synthetase activity leading to ammonium accumulation; and (iii) ammonium accumulation results in secondary death of other brain cells (neurons and oligodendrocytes).ConclusionsIn an in vitro brain cell culture model for GA-I, we confirm the toxicity of the two main accumulating metabolites, GA and 3OHGA, on brain cells; the latter being the most deleterious substance. Our data allow the following conclusions: (i) 3-OHGA leads to massive cell death most likely of non-apoptotic origin; (ii) among the different cellular subpopulations in our model, astrocytes appeared to be the most vulnerable cells; (iii) ammonium accumulation might be secondary to the loss of the astrocytic enzyme glutamine synthetase and play a role in GA-Irelated brain damage; (iv) indirect signs of impaired energy metabolism seem to support previous studies suggesting participation of this mechanism in the neuropathogenesis of GA-I. We suggest a three-step model for brain damage in GA-I. This model, if confirmed in vivo, may explain why investigation of direct neurotoxicity of GA and 3-OHGA has been difficult so far. It may open new therapeutic approaches for neuroprotection focused on the inhibition/detoxification of intracerebrally-produced ammonium. We might thus be one step closer to the prevention of the destructive processes that cause permanent handicap in GA-I.Figure 7. Expression of GCDH in neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. In situ hybridization for GCDH mRNA in adult rat brain (16 mm cryosections), co-labeled by immunohistochemistry for specific markers of neurons (NeuN), astrocytes (GFAP) or oligodendrocytes (MBP). Top and central panels show expression of GCDH mRNA (blue signal) in cortical neurons (top; NeuN, red signal), while GCDH mRNA could not be detected in cortical astrocytes (central; GFAP, red signal, arrows pointing at astrocytic cell bodies). Bottom panel shows GCDH mRNA (blue signal) in granular neurons of cerebellum, while GCDH mRNA appears absent from adjacent oligodendrocytes in white matter of cerebellum (bottom; MBP, red signal). Scale bar: 100 mm. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053735.gexpressed in astrocytes. In previous studies we have shown that ammonium concentrations up to 5 mM are not toxic for astrocytes, but induce cell death in neurons and oligodendrocytes [18]. Thus, we can conclude that the 3-OHGA-induced primary astrocytic death is not related to high ammonium levels, but might be secondarily followed by neuronal and oligodendrocytic death triggered by ammonium accumulation. This hypothesis isAck.

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