Tion: 34.5 AVF, 8 peritoneal catheter, 8.5 temporal hemodialysis catheter and 49 permanent HD catheter.

Tion: 34.5 AVF, 8 peritoneal catheter, 8.5 temporal hemodialysis catheter and 49 permanent HD catheter. For ER+P: 77 AVF, 21 peritoneal catheter, no temporal hemodialysis catheter and 2 permanent HD catheter. For ER+NP: 0.8 AVF, 2.6 peritoneal catheter, 9 temporal hemodialysis catheter and 88 permanent HD catheter. For LR+P: 89 AVF, 8 peritoneal catheter, no temporal hemodialysis catheter and 3 permanent HD catheter. For LR+NP: 0.4 AVF, 1 peritoneal catheter, 18 temporal hemodialysis catheter and 80 a permanent HD catheter. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0155987.g59, 49 ) belonged to the optimal care patient group, whereas only 94/488 (19 ) of HD patients did (p = 0.01).Type of dialysis access (vascular or peritoneal)Access at first dialysis session is described in Fig 2. Serum creatinine and CCr 24h at the time of access request were better in the P than in the NP group [4.9 (3.1?0) mg/dl; 14 (7.9?5.8) ml/min vs. 5.7 (3.1?1.1) mg/dl; 9.7 (5?8.9) ml/min], (p<0.001).] Patients starting (n = 316) with a temporal vascular catheter were progressively switched in the next six weeks to a different access: 49 into an AVF, 36 permanent vascular catheter, 5 with a peritoneal catheter and no grafts use.Table 3. Multivariate logistic regression for planned versus non-planned dialysis start. Pseudo r2 = 0.26. n = 547 Age, years Gender, female vs male eGFR (MDRD 4), > 8.2 ml/min vs. 8.2 ml/min Time from information to initiation of dialysis start, > 2 months vs. 2 months Early referral vs late Diagnosis, Other vs. vascular doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0155987.t003 Odds ratios and 95 CI 1.00 (0.98?.02) 0.84 (0.52?.33) 2.72 (1.72?.27) 4.84 (2.71?.65) 2.12 (1.17?.84) 0.34 (0.19?.60) P 0.97 0.16 0.001 0.001 0.03 0.PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0155987 May 26,7 /Referral, Modality and Dialysis Start in an International SettingTable 4. Characteristics of patients with early referral (>3months) to Integrated Care Settings clinics GDC-0084 price follow-up according to planning of dialysis start. Population ER to ICS, n ( ) Median CKD follow-up before dialysis start (m.) Median time of predialysis follow-up (m.) Predialysis follow-up, n ( ) Serum creatinine at information (mg/dl) Information on dialysis modalities, n ( ) Information provided consent signing, n ( ) Medical visits RelugolixMedChemExpress Relugolix during predialysis follow-up, n Hospitalizations during predialysis follow-up, n PD as 1st dialysis session, n ( ) PD as 1st chronic RRT, n ( ) 37 (13) 44 (16) Total 281 (100) 15.1 (3?5) 6.7 (0.3?8) 241 (86) 4.9 (3?0) 241 (86) 144 (51) P 168 (60) 18.1 (5?5) 8.2 (2?5) 156 (93) 4.5 (2.7?1) 160 (95) 88 (52) 8 (2?7) 2 (0?) 34 (20) 34 (20) NP 113 (40) 12 (0.9?3) 4.9 (0?6.4) 85 (75) 6.0 (2.8?3) 81 (72) 56 (49.5) 2 (0?4) 1 (0?) 3 (2.6) 9 (8) P-value 0.001 0.01 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.Values are median (10th to 90th percentile), or percentage. Abbreviations: P, planned dialysis start patients; NP, non-planned dialysis start patients; ICS, integrated care setting clinics; CKD, chronic kidney disease; (m.), months; RRT, renal replacement therapy; PD, peritoneal dialysis. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0155987.tDiscussionIn our multicenter, international experience most patients had medical follow ups since diagnoses of kidney disease. Almost half of the CKD care was provided by nephrologists. However, 49 of patients were referred late to our ICS clinics and 58 started dialysis in a NP manner, without a permanent dialysis access and/or in an emergency.Tion: 34.5 AVF, 8 peritoneal catheter, 8.5 temporal hemodialysis catheter and 49 permanent HD catheter. For ER+P: 77 AVF, 21 peritoneal catheter, no temporal hemodialysis catheter and 2 permanent HD catheter. For ER+NP: 0.8 AVF, 2.6 peritoneal catheter, 9 temporal hemodialysis catheter and 88 permanent HD catheter. For LR+P: 89 AVF, 8 peritoneal catheter, no temporal hemodialysis catheter and 3 permanent HD catheter. For LR+NP: 0.4 AVF, 1 peritoneal catheter, 18 temporal hemodialysis catheter and 80 a permanent HD catheter. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0155987.g59, 49 ) belonged to the optimal care patient group, whereas only 94/488 (19 ) of HD patients did (p = 0.01).Type of dialysis access (vascular or peritoneal)Access at first dialysis session is described in Fig 2. Serum creatinine and CCr 24h at the time of access request were better in the P than in the NP group [4.9 (3.1?0) mg/dl; 14 (7.9?5.8) ml/min vs. 5.7 (3.1?1.1) mg/dl; 9.7 (5?8.9) ml/min], (p<0.001).] Patients starting (n = 316) with a temporal vascular catheter were progressively switched in the next six weeks to a different access: 49 into an AVF, 36 permanent vascular catheter, 5 with a peritoneal catheter and no grafts use.Table 3. Multivariate logistic regression for planned versus non-planned dialysis start. Pseudo r2 = 0.26. n = 547 Age, years Gender, female vs male eGFR (MDRD 4), > 8.2 ml/min vs. 8.2 ml/min Time from information to initiation of dialysis start, > 2 months vs. 2 months Early referral vs late Diagnosis, Other vs. vascular doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0155987.t003 Odds ratios and 95 CI 1.00 (0.98?.02) 0.84 (0.52?.33) 2.72 (1.72?.27) 4.84 (2.71?.65) 2.12 (1.17?.84) 0.34 (0.19?.60) P 0.97 0.16 0.001 0.001 0.03 0.PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0155987 May 26,7 /Referral, Modality and Dialysis Start in an International SettingTable 4. Characteristics of patients with early referral (>3months) to Integrated Care Settings clinics follow-up according to planning of dialysis start. Population ER to ICS, n ( ) Median CKD follow-up before dialysis start (m.) Median time of predialysis follow-up (m.) Predialysis follow-up, n ( ) Serum creatinine at information (mg/dl) Information on dialysis modalities, n ( ) Information provided consent signing, n ( ) Medical visits during predialysis follow-up, n Hospitalizations during predialysis follow-up, n PD as 1st dialysis session, n ( ) PD as 1st chronic RRT, n ( ) 37 (13) 44 (16) Total 281 (100) 15.1 (3?5) 6.7 (0.3?8) 241 (86) 4.9 (3?0) 241 (86) 144 (51) P 168 (60) 18.1 (5?5) 8.2 (2?5) 156 (93) 4.5 (2.7?1) 160 (95) 88 (52) 8 (2?7) 2 (0?) 34 (20) 34 (20) NP 113 (40) 12 (0.9?3) 4.9 (0?6.4) 85 (75) 6.0 (2.8?3) 81 (72) 56 (49.5) 2 (0?4) 1 (0?) 3 (2.6) 9 (8) P-value 0.001 0.01 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.Values are median (10th to 90th percentile), or percentage. Abbreviations: P, planned dialysis start patients; NP, non-planned dialysis start patients; ICS, integrated care setting clinics; CKD, chronic kidney disease; (m.), months; RRT, renal replacement therapy; PD, peritoneal dialysis. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0155987.tDiscussionIn our multicenter, international experience most patients had medical follow ups since diagnoses of kidney disease. Almost half of the CKD care was provided by nephrologists. However, 49 of patients were referred late to our ICS clinics and 58 started dialysis in a NP manner, without a permanent dialysis access and/or in an emergency.

Om intestinal epithelial cells, or inhibit eukaryotic protein synthesis resulting in

Om intestinal epithelial cells, or inhibit eukaryotic protein synthesis resulting in intestinal injury[2?]. Pathogenic E. coli that breach the intestinal mucosal barrier are phagocytosed by innate immune cells such as lamina propria TSA cost macrophages and neutrophils. Some pathogenic E. coli strains have also acquired virulence genes that allow them to avoid destruction within phagocytes and thereby promote disease[6]. For example, uptake of EHEC into macrophages is associated with increased expression of Shiga toxin, and Shiga toxin enhances intra-macrophage survival through an unknown mechanism[6,7]. Likewise, expression of nitric oxide reductase in EHEC enhances their survival within macrophage phagolysosomes presumably by protecting them from reactive nitrogen species [8]. Similar to pathogenic strains of E. coli, resident intestinal (commensal) E. coli also encounter lamina propria macrophages in the intestine, especially during periods of epithelial damage and enhanced mucosal permeability in chronic inflammatory lesions associated with the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD’s), ABT-737 site Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. IBD’s are associated with genetically-determined defective innate immune responses including disordered cytokine secretion and bacterial clearance in macrophages[9,10]. In addition IBD’s and experimental murine colitis are associated with increased numbers of luminal commensal E. coli [11]. Therefore, it is plausible that enhanced survival of E. coli in macrophages may play a role in etiopathogenesis of IBD’s. Indeed, others have shown that resident adherent- invasive E. coli are more prevalent in inflamed ileal tissue from Crohn’s disease patients compared with controls and that a specific adherent-invasive E. coli strain isolated from a human Crohn’s disease patient causes experimental colitis in susceptible hosts in vivo and survives better in macrophages in vitro compared with laboratory reference E. coli strains[12?4]. The increased survival of the adherent-invasive E. coli strain in macrophages is due in part to expression of E. coli htrA, a gene that allows E. coli to grow at elevated temperatures and defend against killing by hydrogen peroxide in vitro[15]. Genes, including htrA, may therefore function as virulence factors in commensal E. coli by protecting the bacteria from toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or reactive nitrogen species (RNS) found in macrophage phagolysosomes. Similar to HtrA, the E. coli small heat shock proteins IbpA and IbpB also protect bacteria from killing by heat and oxidative stress in laboratory cultures[16?8]. The role of the ibpAB operon in protecting E. coli from heat damage is reinforced by evidence that ibpAB are upregulated in E. coli cultures in response to heat treatment[19,20]. In addition, we have previously shown that a commensal adherent-invasive murine strain of E. coli (NC101), which causes colitis in mono-colonized Il10-/- mice, increases ibpAB expression when present in the inflamed vs. healthy colon, possibly due to the increased concentrations of ROS/RNS in inflamed colon tissue[21?3]. However, it is unknown whether ibpAB are upregulated in response to ROS/RNS are important for the survival of non-pathogenic E. coli in macrophage phagolysosomes. We hypothesized that commensal E. coli upregulate ibpAB in response to ROS and that ibpAB protect E. coli from ROS-mediated killing within macrophages.PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0120249 March 23,2 /IbpAB Protect Comme.Om intestinal epithelial cells, or inhibit eukaryotic protein synthesis resulting in intestinal injury[2?]. Pathogenic E. coli that breach the intestinal mucosal barrier are phagocytosed by innate immune cells such as lamina propria macrophages and neutrophils. Some pathogenic E. coli strains have also acquired virulence genes that allow them to avoid destruction within phagocytes and thereby promote disease[6]. For example, uptake of EHEC into macrophages is associated with increased expression of Shiga toxin, and Shiga toxin enhances intra-macrophage survival through an unknown mechanism[6,7]. Likewise, expression of nitric oxide reductase in EHEC enhances their survival within macrophage phagolysosomes presumably by protecting them from reactive nitrogen species [8]. Similar to pathogenic strains of E. coli, resident intestinal (commensal) E. coli also encounter lamina propria macrophages in the intestine, especially during periods of epithelial damage and enhanced mucosal permeability in chronic inflammatory lesions associated with the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD’s), Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. IBD’s are associated with genetically-determined defective innate immune responses including disordered cytokine secretion and bacterial clearance in macrophages[9,10]. In addition IBD’s and experimental murine colitis are associated with increased numbers of luminal commensal E. coli [11]. Therefore, it is plausible that enhanced survival of E. coli in macrophages may play a role in etiopathogenesis of IBD’s. Indeed, others have shown that resident adherent- invasive E. coli are more prevalent in inflamed ileal tissue from Crohn’s disease patients compared with controls and that a specific adherent-invasive E. coli strain isolated from a human Crohn’s disease patient causes experimental colitis in susceptible hosts in vivo and survives better in macrophages in vitro compared with laboratory reference E. coli strains[12?4]. The increased survival of the adherent-invasive E. coli strain in macrophages is due in part to expression of E. coli htrA, a gene that allows E. coli to grow at elevated temperatures and defend against killing by hydrogen peroxide in vitro[15]. Genes, including htrA, may therefore function as virulence factors in commensal E. coli by protecting the bacteria from toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or reactive nitrogen species (RNS) found in macrophage phagolysosomes. Similar to HtrA, the E. coli small heat shock proteins IbpA and IbpB also protect bacteria from killing by heat and oxidative stress in laboratory cultures[16?8]. The role of the ibpAB operon in protecting E. coli from heat damage is reinforced by evidence that ibpAB are upregulated in E. coli cultures in response to heat treatment[19,20]. In addition, we have previously shown that a commensal adherent-invasive murine strain of E. coli (NC101), which causes colitis in mono-colonized Il10-/- mice, increases ibpAB expression when present in the inflamed vs. healthy colon, possibly due to the increased concentrations of ROS/RNS in inflamed colon tissue[21?3]. However, it is unknown whether ibpAB are upregulated in response to ROS/RNS are important for the survival of non-pathogenic E. coli in macrophage phagolysosomes. We hypothesized that commensal E. coli upregulate ibpAB in response to ROS and that ibpAB protect E. coli from ROS-mediated killing within macrophages.PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0120249 March 23,2 /IbpAB Protect Comme.

Re typified by high levels of reciprocity (12?5), implying that mutual acceptance

Re typified by high levels of reciprocity (12?5), implying that mutual acceptance of new links is the social norm. Our study builds upon this work in three ways. First, our design is fully endogenous, allowing individuals to decide with whom they will make and break ties. As we explain below, the resulting effect sizes are much larger than in order LOXO-101 previous studies of dynamic networks (8, 9), reaching close to 100 cooperation in some cases. Second, we consider an extremely wide range of update rates, affording us a much clearer understanding of the importance of varying rates. We find no evidence of the hypothesized threshold effect (9, 10), instead finding significant and positive increases in cooperation at rates well below those previously reported. Finally, and in contrast to both previous studies that considered only one set of payoffs, we manipulate the payoff structure itself, effectively varying the attractiveness of the “outside option” (16), meaning roughly the payoff associated with choosing not to interact with a potential partner. We find that only in the presence of an attractive outside option do conditional cooperators Torin 1 chemical information punish defectors (by proactively deleting ties with them). By contrast, when the outside option is less attractive, we find that cooperators tolerate defecting partners, eventually leading them to defect themselves. Our work is also related more generally to a number of recent experiments that have investigated various aspects of the relationship between cooperation and partner selection, such as unilateral vs. bilateral choice (17, 18), the effect of introducing an outside option of varying attractiveness (16), and the attributes of the individuals (age, sex, race, etc.) as predictors of selection and cooperation (19, 20). Although our treatment of the outside option is consistent with previous work (16), it is distinct in that it extends it to the case of a dynamic network. Finally,Author contributions: J.W., S.S., and D.J.W. designed research; J.W. and S.S. performed research; J.W., S.S., and D.J.W. analyzed data; and S.S. and D.J.W. wrote the paper. The authors declare no conflict of interest.Freely available online through the PNAS open access option.To whom correspondence may be addressed. E-mail: [email protected], [email protected] microsoft.com, or [email protected] article contains supporting information online at www.pnas.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10. 1073/pnas.1120867109/-/DCSupplemental.www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.PNAS | September 4, 2012 | vol. 109 | no. 36 | 14363?SOCIAL SCIENCESThis article is a PNAS Direct Submission. M.O.J. is a guest editor invited by the Editorial Board.other related work (21, 22) has examined how individuals select groups or are excluded by them. Although at a high level these papers clearly resemble both the partner selection literature and dynamic updating studies such as ours, they differ substantially from both literatures in that the object of selection (21) or the actor (22) is the group, not the individual. Experimental Setup We conducted a series of online human subjects experiments in which groups of 24 participants played an iterated prisoner’s dilemma (PD) game, where in addition to choosing their action each round–cooperate or defect–they also were given the opportunity to update their interaction partners at some specified rate, which was varied across experimental conditions. (See SI Appendix, Figs. S1 and S2 for details of the experimental platform and recr.Re typified by high levels of reciprocity (12?5), implying that mutual acceptance of new links is the social norm. Our study builds upon this work in three ways. First, our design is fully endogenous, allowing individuals to decide with whom they will make and break ties. As we explain below, the resulting effect sizes are much larger than in previous studies of dynamic networks (8, 9), reaching close to 100 cooperation in some cases. Second, we consider an extremely wide range of update rates, affording us a much clearer understanding of the importance of varying rates. We find no evidence of the hypothesized threshold effect (9, 10), instead finding significant and positive increases in cooperation at rates well below those previously reported. Finally, and in contrast to both previous studies that considered only one set of payoffs, we manipulate the payoff structure itself, effectively varying the attractiveness of the “outside option” (16), meaning roughly the payoff associated with choosing not to interact with a potential partner. We find that only in the presence of an attractive outside option do conditional cooperators punish defectors (by proactively deleting ties with them). By contrast, when the outside option is less attractive, we find that cooperators tolerate defecting partners, eventually leading them to defect themselves. Our work is also related more generally to a number of recent experiments that have investigated various aspects of the relationship between cooperation and partner selection, such as unilateral vs. bilateral choice (17, 18), the effect of introducing an outside option of varying attractiveness (16), and the attributes of the individuals (age, sex, race, etc.) as predictors of selection and cooperation (19, 20). Although our treatment of the outside option is consistent with previous work (16), it is distinct in that it extends it to the case of a dynamic network. Finally,Author contributions: J.W., S.S., and D.J.W. designed research; J.W. and S.S. performed research; J.W., S.S., and D.J.W. analyzed data; and S.S. and D.J.W. wrote the paper. The authors declare no conflict of interest.Freely available online through the PNAS open access option.To whom correspondence may be addressed. E-mail: [email protected], [email protected] microsoft.com, or [email protected] article contains supporting information online at www.pnas.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10. 1073/pnas.1120867109/-/DCSupplemental.www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.PNAS | September 4, 2012 | vol. 109 | no. 36 | 14363?SOCIAL SCIENCESThis article is a PNAS Direct Submission. M.O.J. is a guest editor invited by the Editorial Board.other related work (21, 22) has examined how individuals select groups or are excluded by them. Although at a high level these papers clearly resemble both the partner selection literature and dynamic updating studies such as ours, they differ substantially from both literatures in that the object of selection (21) or the actor (22) is the group, not the individual. Experimental Setup We conducted a series of online human subjects experiments in which groups of 24 participants played an iterated prisoner’s dilemma (PD) game, where in addition to choosing their action each round–cooperate or defect–they also were given the opportunity to update their interaction partners at some specified rate, which was varied across experimental conditions. (See SI Appendix, Figs. S1 and S2 for details of the experimental platform and recr.

M test. We then performed a multivariate logistic regression analysis to

M test. We then performed a multivariate logistic regression analysis to examine the prediction performance of the clinical response with other clinical variables such as patient age, debulking status, and tumor stage. We also performed Cox proportional hazard regression analyses to understand the prediction performance for patient variable survival times by the three drugs’ predictors together with other important clinical variables.Results Final Drug Biomarkers and PredictorsThe final predictor for paclitaxel was Pleconaril dose comprised of 20 biomarkers with an AUC of 0.766 for 107 patients treated with the drug in the Bonome-185 cohort (P,0.01). The predictor for cyclophosphamide consisted of 44 genes with an AUC of 0.664 for 68 cyclophosphamide-treated patients also in the Bonome-185 cohort (P = 0.024). As for topotecan, the final predictor included 58 genes with an AUC of 0.917 for 10 patients treated with topotecan in the TCGA-UW cohort (P = 0.143); the Topotecan predictor was not statistically significant due to the small sample size of this cohort despite a very high AUC value (see Results S1 and Figure S1 for the detailed gene lists and the ROC analyses).Predictor Evaluation with Independent EOC CohortsWe examined the prediction performance of the above predictors on independent patient sets that were not used for our biomarker discovery and model training. We first examined the stratification performance of paclitaxel predictor scores between patients with CR and NR for two independent cohorts, TCGA-448 and UVA-51, for short-term clinical response to the primary chemotherapy with paclitaxel; note that clinical response information was available only for paclitaxel, since it was used in the primary platinum-based combination chemotherapy for most EOC patients. In our univariate logistic regression analysis for each of the predictors and clinical variables, a highly significant difference was found between the two patient groups in TCGA448 (p-value = 0.003). For the UVA-51 cohort, paclitaxel predictor scores showed a marginally significant difference between 28 CR and 23 NR patients due to its relatively small sample size (pvalue = 0.075, left RG7800MedChemExpress RG7800 column in Table 2). As widely recognized, we also found that optimal vs. suboptimal debulking status was significantly associated with therapeutic response to the primary chemotherapy treatments. Adjusting for the effects of surgical outcome, age, and tumor stage, multivariate logistic regression analysis also showed that patients with higher predictor scores and optimal debulking had significantly higher chances of therapeutic response (predictor odds ratio [OR] = 3.591; 95 CI: 1.494?.85; P = 0.005, right column in Table 2). Therefore, the predictor showed predictive information beyond patient debulking status in this multivariate analysis. For the UVA-51 cohort, the paclitaxel predictor again showed a marginally significant association with drug response (predictor OR = 9.521; 95 CI: 0.99?25.73, P = 0.063). We next examined the prediction performance of the three drug predictors and clinical variables for long-term survival of thedoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0086532.tclinical response and survival data of EOC patients to obtain the best therapeutic predictor for each drug. For this evaluation of competing models, we used the Bonome-185 set for paclitaxel and cyclophosphamide and the TCGA-UW set for topotecan. The Bonome-185 and the TGGA-UW sets also used to pre-define predicted responders (CR) and non-r.M test. We then performed a multivariate logistic regression analysis to examine the prediction performance of the clinical response with other clinical variables such as patient age, debulking status, and tumor stage. We also performed Cox proportional hazard regression analyses to understand the prediction performance for patient variable survival times by the three drugs’ predictors together with other important clinical variables.Results Final Drug Biomarkers and PredictorsThe final predictor for paclitaxel was comprised of 20 biomarkers with an AUC of 0.766 for 107 patients treated with the drug in the Bonome-185 cohort (P,0.01). The predictor for cyclophosphamide consisted of 44 genes with an AUC of 0.664 for 68 cyclophosphamide-treated patients also in the Bonome-185 cohort (P = 0.024). As for topotecan, the final predictor included 58 genes with an AUC of 0.917 for 10 patients treated with topotecan in the TCGA-UW cohort (P = 0.143); the Topotecan predictor was not statistically significant due to the small sample size of this cohort despite a very high AUC value (see Results S1 and Figure S1 for the detailed gene lists and the ROC analyses).Predictor Evaluation with Independent EOC CohortsWe examined the prediction performance of the above predictors on independent patient sets that were not used for our biomarker discovery and model training. We first examined the stratification performance of paclitaxel predictor scores between patients with CR and NR for two independent cohorts, TCGA-448 and UVA-51, for short-term clinical response to the primary chemotherapy with paclitaxel; note that clinical response information was available only for paclitaxel, since it was used in the primary platinum-based combination chemotherapy for most EOC patients. In our univariate logistic regression analysis for each of the predictors and clinical variables, a highly significant difference was found between the two patient groups in TCGA448 (p-value = 0.003). For the UVA-51 cohort, paclitaxel predictor scores showed a marginally significant difference between 28 CR and 23 NR patients due to its relatively small sample size (pvalue = 0.075, left column in Table 2). As widely recognized, we also found that optimal vs. suboptimal debulking status was significantly associated with therapeutic response to the primary chemotherapy treatments. Adjusting for the effects of surgical outcome, age, and tumor stage, multivariate logistic regression analysis also showed that patients with higher predictor scores and optimal debulking had significantly higher chances of therapeutic response (predictor odds ratio [OR] = 3.591; 95 CI: 1.494?.85; P = 0.005, right column in Table 2). Therefore, the predictor showed predictive information beyond patient debulking status in this multivariate analysis. For the UVA-51 cohort, the paclitaxel predictor again showed a marginally significant association with drug response (predictor OR = 9.521; 95 CI: 0.99?25.73, P = 0.063). We next examined the prediction performance of the three drug predictors and clinical variables for long-term survival of thedoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0086532.tclinical response and survival data of EOC patients to obtain the best therapeutic predictor for each drug. For this evaluation of competing models, we used the Bonome-185 set for paclitaxel and cyclophosphamide and the TCGA-UW set for topotecan. The Bonome-185 and the TGGA-UW sets also used to pre-define predicted responders (CR) and non-r.

Ls of communal goals. However, by 10th grade,Alcohol Clin Exp

Ls of communal goals. However, by 10th grade,Alcohol Clin Exp Res. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2016 December 01.Meisel and ColderPageinjunctive, but not MG-132 web descriptive norms were prospectively associated with alcohol use for these adolescents. This pattern suggests a developmental shift such that youth characterized by high communal goals are likely to conform to descriptive alcohol norms in early adolescence and then to injunctive norms later in adolescence. We expected that youth with strong communal goals would be motivated to conform to peer approval of drinking (injunctive norms) to maintain close order Pemafibrate social ties. However, why conformity to descriptive norms was evident in early adolescence is unclear. Approval of drinking during early adolescence is fairly low (Jackson et al., 2014; Voogt et al., 2013), yet adolescents (even in early adolescence) view the prototypical drinker as someone who is gregarious, social, and fits in (Norman et al., 2007). In the absence of approval in early adolescence, youth with strong communal goals may conform to descriptive norms to maintain or form social ties. However, in later adolescence when alcohol becomes more common and attitudes about alcohol become more positive (Colder et al., 2014) injunctive norms may become of the more salient guide of drinking behavior. Descriptive and injunctive norms were found to be prospectively associated with alcohol use in 10th grade for adolescents with low levels of communal goals. These findings were surprising. Social norms were not hypothesized to be associated with alcohol use for adolescence low in communal goals because these individuals are typically described as being socially detached (Ojanen et al., 2005). Moreover, weak communal goals are associated with high levels of social anxiety, shyness, social avoidance and unsociability (Authors, 2008), suggesting that these youth might be isolated from social contexts that promote drinking. However some research suggests that although adolescents with low communal goals are socially detached and rejected by their peers, they may still desire peer relationships (Ojanen et al, 2005; Authors, 2008). Additionally, work from developmental neuroscience suggests that there is an increased desire to have peer interactions during pubertal development, perhaps, as a result of maturation of neural circuitry that make these interactions more rewarding (Steinberg, 2007). Indeed, one of the notable transitions during adolescence is a shift toward spending increasing amounts of time with peers (Spear, 2000). Taken together, these findings suggest that despite their desire for emotional distance, adolescents low in communal goals may desire social ties and may look at social norms of drinking as a means of meeting their conflicting desire for emotional distance and social connectedness. Limitations Although the current study had several strengths including its longitudinal design spanning early to middle adolescence and its assessment of unique moderating mechanisms of descriptive and injunctive norms, it is important to note several limitations. First, our study spanned early to middle adolescence, and consequently our findings are most generalizable to the early stages of alcohol use (initiation and experimentation). Additionally, while descriptive and injunctive norms have been shown to be largely inaccurate in later adolescence (Borsari and Carey, 2003), few studies have assessed the accuracy of descriptive norms in e.Ls of communal goals. However, by 10th grade,Alcohol Clin Exp Res. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2016 December 01.Meisel and ColderPageinjunctive, but not descriptive norms were prospectively associated with alcohol use for these adolescents. This pattern suggests a developmental shift such that youth characterized by high communal goals are likely to conform to descriptive alcohol norms in early adolescence and then to injunctive norms later in adolescence. We expected that youth with strong communal goals would be motivated to conform to peer approval of drinking (injunctive norms) to maintain close social ties. However, why conformity to descriptive norms was evident in early adolescence is unclear. Approval of drinking during early adolescence is fairly low (Jackson et al., 2014; Voogt et al., 2013), yet adolescents (even in early adolescence) view the prototypical drinker as someone who is gregarious, social, and fits in (Norman et al., 2007). In the absence of approval in early adolescence, youth with strong communal goals may conform to descriptive norms to maintain or form social ties. However, in later adolescence when alcohol becomes more common and attitudes about alcohol become more positive (Colder et al., 2014) injunctive norms may become of the more salient guide of drinking behavior. Descriptive and injunctive norms were found to be prospectively associated with alcohol use in 10th grade for adolescents with low levels of communal goals. These findings were surprising. Social norms were not hypothesized to be associated with alcohol use for adolescence low in communal goals because these individuals are typically described as being socially detached (Ojanen et al., 2005). Moreover, weak communal goals are associated with high levels of social anxiety, shyness, social avoidance and unsociability (Authors, 2008), suggesting that these youth might be isolated from social contexts that promote drinking. However some research suggests that although adolescents with low communal goals are socially detached and rejected by their peers, they may still desire peer relationships (Ojanen et al, 2005; Authors, 2008). Additionally, work from developmental neuroscience suggests that there is an increased desire to have peer interactions during pubertal development, perhaps, as a result of maturation of neural circuitry that make these interactions more rewarding (Steinberg, 2007). Indeed, one of the notable transitions during adolescence is a shift toward spending increasing amounts of time with peers (Spear, 2000). Taken together, these findings suggest that despite their desire for emotional distance, adolescents low in communal goals may desire social ties and may look at social norms of drinking as a means of meeting their conflicting desire for emotional distance and social connectedness. Limitations Although the current study had several strengths including its longitudinal design spanning early to middle adolescence and its assessment of unique moderating mechanisms of descriptive and injunctive norms, it is important to note several limitations. First, our study spanned early to middle adolescence, and consequently our findings are most generalizable to the early stages of alcohol use (initiation and experimentation). Additionally, while descriptive and injunctive norms have been shown to be largely inaccurate in later adolescence (Borsari and Carey, 2003), few studies have assessed the accuracy of descriptive norms in e.

S relating to commercial sex. In a safe environment, the dialogue

S relating to commercial sex. In a safe environment, the dialogue usually happened in such a natural and friendly sisterhood way, that it dispelled women’s fear of seeing a doctor for STIs, and made the sex topics easier to talk about. They would also chat about the new changes of the sex industry, through which information would be collected on where new FSW were appearing, whether there was drug use in the venue, which venue was cracked down, etc. We also observed that calls came in quite often to consult for health issues, especially about pregnancy and abortion, or asking for help to refer to other hospitals if the service is out of the range of this clinic. (Field notes, end of 1st week, January 2012) These supportive clinical services, which incorporated respect, concern and relationship building, were essential parts of JZ’s success in working with FSW and surpass the KF-89617 chemical information services that would typically be provided to a patient (FSW or otherwise) in a standard clinical setting. Supportive services were especially C.I. 75535 site important for attracting FSWs who were hard to reach through traditional outreach work, such as street-standing FSWs and women who were very mobile. For example, many migrant FSWs now come to the centre to get tested before returning to their hometowns for holidays. As noted by one FSW: I’ve known Dr Z for 4? years; she is a good and skilled person, we believe in her. ?I have a child and husband at home and I’ll visit them soon ?very exciting ?I usually go home once or twice a year and definitely don’t want to transmit to my family some disease, you know, in this business, it is hard to tell ?I don’t feel like I have a problem, but just to double check, to be safe and feel more comfortable. (FSW, in early 40s) A welcoming clinic setting and high-quality clinical services were both essential elements of JZ’s success; neither component alone would be as successful at attracting and maintaining FSW’s engagement with the programme services. Responsive outreach work with FSW–Outreach work consisted of on-site training to FSW about STI and HIV knowledge and strategies of how to avoid violence from clients and police, distribution of IEC materials, on-site health consultations and collection of blood for STI tests, visitation of incarcerated FSW and additional supportive activities. JZ’s regular outreach work happens at least three times a week. The outreach activities are conducted by pairs of workers (either one peer leader trained FSW and one CBO worker or two CBO workers if no peer leaders are available) and generally involve walking the neighbourhoods to visit sex work venues one by one. For remote areas, staff take a taxi or bus, or sometimes used their own cars. All staff and management participated in outreach work. This comprehensive participation familiarised staff with the local FSWs’ work situations ?including venue organisation types ?which in turn benefited their intervention work. Outreach services covered different types of sex work venues from streets to large karaoke bars. The sites and content of the outreach services vary depending on the occupational issues arising during the current time period, JZ’s relationship with the venues and the business situation of each site. As outreach coordinator Miss Chen described:Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptGlob Public Health. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2016 August 01.Huang et al.PageYou can’t expect people to warmly welcome yo.S relating to commercial sex. In a safe environment, the dialogue usually happened in such a natural and friendly sisterhood way, that it dispelled women’s fear of seeing a doctor for STIs, and made the sex topics easier to talk about. They would also chat about the new changes of the sex industry, through which information would be collected on where new FSW were appearing, whether there was drug use in the venue, which venue was cracked down, etc. We also observed that calls came in quite often to consult for health issues, especially about pregnancy and abortion, or asking for help to refer to other hospitals if the service is out of the range of this clinic. (Field notes, end of 1st week, January 2012) These supportive clinical services, which incorporated respect, concern and relationship building, were essential parts of JZ’s success in working with FSW and surpass the services that would typically be provided to a patient (FSW or otherwise) in a standard clinical setting. Supportive services were especially important for attracting FSWs who were hard to reach through traditional outreach work, such as street-standing FSWs and women who were very mobile. For example, many migrant FSWs now come to the centre to get tested before returning to their hometowns for holidays. As noted by one FSW: I’ve known Dr Z for 4? years; she is a good and skilled person, we believe in her. ?I have a child and husband at home and I’ll visit them soon ?very exciting ?I usually go home once or twice a year and definitely don’t want to transmit to my family some disease, you know, in this business, it is hard to tell ?I don’t feel like I have a problem, but just to double check, to be safe and feel more comfortable. (FSW, in early 40s) A welcoming clinic setting and high-quality clinical services were both essential elements of JZ’s success; neither component alone would be as successful at attracting and maintaining FSW’s engagement with the programme services. Responsive outreach work with FSW–Outreach work consisted of on-site training to FSW about STI and HIV knowledge and strategies of how to avoid violence from clients and police, distribution of IEC materials, on-site health consultations and collection of blood for STI tests, visitation of incarcerated FSW and additional supportive activities. JZ’s regular outreach work happens at least three times a week. The outreach activities are conducted by pairs of workers (either one peer leader trained FSW and one CBO worker or two CBO workers if no peer leaders are available) and generally involve walking the neighbourhoods to visit sex work venues one by one. For remote areas, staff take a taxi or bus, or sometimes used their own cars. All staff and management participated in outreach work. This comprehensive participation familiarised staff with the local FSWs’ work situations ?including venue organisation types ?which in turn benefited their intervention work. Outreach services covered different types of sex work venues from streets to large karaoke bars. The sites and content of the outreach services vary depending on the occupational issues arising during the current time period, JZ’s relationship with the venues and the business situation of each site. As outreach coordinator Miss Chen described:Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author ManuscriptGlob Public Health. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2016 August 01.Huang et al.PageYou can’t expect people to warmly welcome yo.

Between the salaries of medical doctors and the TCs. . .[surgical assistants

Between the salaries of medical doctors and the TCs. . .[surgical assistants]. (Medical Doctor, Mozambique, Study # 4)Contrasting the findings associated with lower and higher levels of task shifting, it appears that structured career planning is more of an issue for skilled staff taking on new tasks. With that said, lower-level staff involved in task shifting, especially new lower cadres such as that envisioned in the Kenyan scheme, seem likely to view their training as an opportunity to become recognised providers of medical care. To prevent lower cadres being tempted to enact informal charging or to misrepresent themselves as nurses or doctors, lower cadres should be closely monitored and adequately paid. In addition, although this is less of a concern for lowerlevel workers, their formal position within the hierarchy of healthcare positions should be planned, and the requirements for entry to more advanced posts made clear.DiscussionLimitations and strengthsDefining task shifting in literature search Task-shifting interventions may not be labelled as such in literature. For example, systematic review of midwifery services found that although the term `task shifting’ was used commonly in relation to community health workers, `task shifting’ was used infrequently when describing interventions involving midwives (Colvin et al. 2013). Our literature search included terms that were synonymous/near synonymous with task shifting as well as a review of secondary references. The list of search terms was not exhaustive and it is possible that the studies IRC-022493 chemical information identified were more likely to represent some cadres than others. Obtaining rich qualitative data As mentioned in the discussion on the quality of studies included in the review, qualitative studies published in health journals provide a diverse, but somewhat limited amount of data. Further grey literature searches with focus on obtaining unpublished documents from various health organisations and identifying extensive ethnographic projects BAY1217389 msds conducted by anthropologists would potentially provide richer data and inform subsequent analysis. Quality of the studies in the review Studies were included regardless of the quality score assigned. All studies provided narratives that were helpful in drawing a larger picture about the impact of task-shifting programmesAt the same time lower skilled cadres were often seen as part of the solution to providing healthcare to underserviced areas. They had good retention rates compared to higher skilled staff and they came at a substantially lower cost. It was widely acknowledged that lower, less skilled cadres performing tasks at a lower cost was in fact what made task shifting a plausible mechanism for providing additional health services in the first place:Skills of lower cadre health workers and especially community health workers are hardly portable both nationally and internationally. Lower cadre health workers can also be easily and cheaply recruited from within areas where they live and where they are supposed to be working. It is thus easy to retain these workers as?2016 The Authors. Journal of Clinical Nursing Published by John Wiley Sons Ltd. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 25, 2083?ReviewReview: Task shifting in sub-Saharan Africaon health workers. Due to limited researcher reflexivity and scant information about study informants, reliability of individual study findings was at times difficult to ascertain. It is likely that important perspectives.Between the salaries of medical doctors and the TCs. . .[surgical assistants]. (Medical Doctor, Mozambique, Study # 4)Contrasting the findings associated with lower and higher levels of task shifting, it appears that structured career planning is more of an issue for skilled staff taking on new tasks. With that said, lower-level staff involved in task shifting, especially new lower cadres such as that envisioned in the Kenyan scheme, seem likely to view their training as an opportunity to become recognised providers of medical care. To prevent lower cadres being tempted to enact informal charging or to misrepresent themselves as nurses or doctors, lower cadres should be closely monitored and adequately paid. In addition, although this is less of a concern for lowerlevel workers, their formal position within the hierarchy of healthcare positions should be planned, and the requirements for entry to more advanced posts made clear.DiscussionLimitations and strengthsDefining task shifting in literature search Task-shifting interventions may not be labelled as such in literature. For example, systematic review of midwifery services found that although the term `task shifting’ was used commonly in relation to community health workers, `task shifting’ was used infrequently when describing interventions involving midwives (Colvin et al. 2013). Our literature search included terms that were synonymous/near synonymous with task shifting as well as a review of secondary references. The list of search terms was not exhaustive and it is possible that the studies identified were more likely to represent some cadres than others. Obtaining rich qualitative data As mentioned in the discussion on the quality of studies included in the review, qualitative studies published in health journals provide a diverse, but somewhat limited amount of data. Further grey literature searches with focus on obtaining unpublished documents from various health organisations and identifying extensive ethnographic projects conducted by anthropologists would potentially provide richer data and inform subsequent analysis. Quality of the studies in the review Studies were included regardless of the quality score assigned. All studies provided narratives that were helpful in drawing a larger picture about the impact of task-shifting programmesAt the same time lower skilled cadres were often seen as part of the solution to providing healthcare to underserviced areas. They had good retention rates compared to higher skilled staff and they came at a substantially lower cost. It was widely acknowledged that lower, less skilled cadres performing tasks at a lower cost was in fact what made task shifting a plausible mechanism for providing additional health services in the first place:Skills of lower cadre health workers and especially community health workers are hardly portable both nationally and internationally. Lower cadre health workers can also be easily and cheaply recruited from within areas where they live and where they are supposed to be working. It is thus easy to retain these workers as?2016 The Authors. Journal of Clinical Nursing Published by John Wiley Sons Ltd. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 25, 2083?ReviewReview: Task shifting in sub-Saharan Africaon health workers. Due to limited researcher reflexivity and scant information about study informants, reliability of individual study findings was at times difficult to ascertain. It is likely that important perspectives.

Rey) with vestiges of sauropod tracks; south of James Price Point.

Rey) with vestiges of sauropod tracks; south of James Price Point. B, a similar but smaller feature at James Price Point, at the very margin of the lower-lying areas shown in Figure 24. The two water-filled areas at left and right have been trodden down by sauropods to leave an `anticlinal’ fold between them. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0036208.gtransmitted reliefs of an entire trackway. In theory the same concession might extend ultimately to regions of deformed bedding that resemble minor tectonic structures and even to the larger features of physical geography seen at James Price Point. In effect, the state of ichnotaxonomy would come to resemble that of zoological taxonomy when the available names of taxa were extended to the `work’ of animals [47]. Seemingly valid ichnotaxonomic names might be bestowed on geographic features of the Dampier coast, in just the way that the name Homo sapiens might be applied to all and any human artefacts, from stone axes to space shuttles. It seems preferable to avoid that incongruous outcome by maintaining the genuine, if arbitrary, distinction between footprints and sedimentary structures (T0901317 molecular weight patterns of deformation) which are associated with footprints. That policy is, in fact, consistent with conventional practice in ichnotaxonomy, where features of transmitted Cycloheximide molecular weight relief are disregarded or treated, at best, as an indirect and inferior source of information about the `true’ footprints. Footprints, sensu stricto, are definitely objects of organic origin whereas the development of transmitted reliefs depends as much on the nature of the substrate as it does on the intervention of a track-maker. In fact, the development of transmitted relief, in the broadest sense, does not necessarily require the active involvement of a track-maker. In theory transmitted reliefs might be produced by organisms which are inert (e.g. a carcass settlingon to the floor of a lagoon) or by the impact of inorganic objects such as drop-stones, lapilli, volcanic bombs, meteorites or hail. Even so, the taxonomic implications should not be overrated. Ideally ichnotaxa should be established on type material comprising one or more footprints (true tracks), not transmitted reliefs (undertracks). But that is merely the description of ideal practice; it is not the stipulation of a mandatory requirement. Each case is to be judged on its individual merits, and no great harm will ensue if a valid ichnospecies should transpire to be founded on transmitted relief rather than a footprint (a true track). In practice all that matters is that type material should be adequate and diagnostic, regardless of its status as footprint or transmitted relief. That concession is not the thin end of a wedge that would ultimately permit all and any transmitted reliefs to be classified as conventional ichnotaxa, because only the most proximal reliefs are likely to retain the morphological details required to discriminate a valid ichnospecies. The more distal transmitted reliefs lack such consistent morphological detail and are far less likely to be mistaken for footprints (true tracks) – though they might easily and more appropriately be classified as a series of sedimentary structures (e.g. bowls, basins, troughs and folds of various shapes and sizes).Previous interpretationsSome of the sedimentary features described here may have attracted attention in the past, though the sauropod tracks werePLoS ONE | www.plosone.orgSubstrates Deformed by Cretaceous Dinosaurs.Rey) with vestiges of sauropod tracks; south of James Price Point. B, a similar but smaller feature at James Price Point, at the very margin of the lower-lying areas shown in Figure 24. The two water-filled areas at left and right have been trodden down by sauropods to leave an `anticlinal’ fold between them. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0036208.gtransmitted reliefs of an entire trackway. In theory the same concession might extend ultimately to regions of deformed bedding that resemble minor tectonic structures and even to the larger features of physical geography seen at James Price Point. In effect, the state of ichnotaxonomy would come to resemble that of zoological taxonomy when the available names of taxa were extended to the `work’ of animals [47]. Seemingly valid ichnotaxonomic names might be bestowed on geographic features of the Dampier coast, in just the way that the name Homo sapiens might be applied to all and any human artefacts, from stone axes to space shuttles. It seems preferable to avoid that incongruous outcome by maintaining the genuine, if arbitrary, distinction between footprints and sedimentary structures (patterns of deformation) which are associated with footprints. That policy is, in fact, consistent with conventional practice in ichnotaxonomy, where features of transmitted relief are disregarded or treated, at best, as an indirect and inferior source of information about the `true’ footprints. Footprints, sensu stricto, are definitely objects of organic origin whereas the development of transmitted reliefs depends as much on the nature of the substrate as it does on the intervention of a track-maker. In fact, the development of transmitted relief, in the broadest sense, does not necessarily require the active involvement of a track-maker. In theory transmitted reliefs might be produced by organisms which are inert (e.g. a carcass settlingon to the floor of a lagoon) or by the impact of inorganic objects such as drop-stones, lapilli, volcanic bombs, meteorites or hail. Even so, the taxonomic implications should not be overrated. Ideally ichnotaxa should be established on type material comprising one or more footprints (true tracks), not transmitted reliefs (undertracks). But that is merely the description of ideal practice; it is not the stipulation of a mandatory requirement. Each case is to be judged on its individual merits, and no great harm will ensue if a valid ichnospecies should transpire to be founded on transmitted relief rather than a footprint (a true track). In practice all that matters is that type material should be adequate and diagnostic, regardless of its status as footprint or transmitted relief. That concession is not the thin end of a wedge that would ultimately permit all and any transmitted reliefs to be classified as conventional ichnotaxa, because only the most proximal reliefs are likely to retain the morphological details required to discriminate a valid ichnospecies. The more distal transmitted reliefs lack such consistent morphological detail and are far less likely to be mistaken for footprints (true tracks) – though they might easily and more appropriately be classified as a series of sedimentary structures (e.g. bowls, basins, troughs and folds of various shapes and sizes).Previous interpretationsSome of the sedimentary features described here may have attracted attention in the past, though the sauropod tracks werePLoS ONE | www.plosone.orgSubstrates Deformed by Cretaceous Dinosaurs.

Early widening towards posterior margin. Mediotergite 1 sculpture: mostly sculptured, excavated area

Early widening towards posterior margin. Mediotergite 1 sculpture: mostly sculptured, excavated area centrally with transverse striation inside and/or a polished knob centrally on posterior margin of mediotergite. Mediotergite 2 width at posterior margin/length: 3.2?.5. Mediotergite 2 sculpture: more or less fully sculptured, with longitudinal striation. Outer margin of hypopygium: with a wide, medially folded, transparent, semi esclerotized area; usually with 4 or more pleats. Ovipositor thickness: about same width throughout its length. Ovipositor sheaths length/metatibial length: 1.0?.1. INK1117 site length of fore wing veins r/2RS: 1.7?.9. Length of fore wing veins 2RS/2M: 0.9?.0. Length of fore wing veins 2M/(RS+M)b: 0.9?.0. Pterostigma length/width: 2.1?.5. Point of insertion of vein r in pterostigma: about half way point length of pterostigma. Angle of vein r with fore wing anterior margin: more or less perpendicular to fore wing margin. Shape of junction of veins r and 2RS in fore wing: distinctly but not strongly angled. Male. Similar to female, except for shape of mediotergite 1 which is more rectangular, and coloration of meso and metafemur which tends to be darker in some specimens. Molecular data. Sequences in BOLD: 16, barcode compliant sequences: 15, haplotypes: 2. Biology/ecology. Gregarious. Mostly recorded from Lepidoptera species on stored products ts cosmopolitan distribution is likely due to human transfer from an unknown source. Hosts: Gelechiidae, Lasiocampidae, Lecithoceridae, Lymantriidae, Pyralidae, Thaumetopoeidae, Tineidae, Tortricidae, Zygaenidae. The correctness of some of these host records is questionable because it is unlikely that a single species has such a wide host range. Distribution. Cosmopolitan, this species has been recorded from 50 countries in all continents but there is no suggestion that it occurs in ACG.Review of Apanteles sensu stricto (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae)…Comments. The geographical coverage of the barcoded specimens includes Canada and New Zealand, but all sequences are almost identical. The only exceptions are some extralimital specimens (British Columbia, Canada) which seem to represent a different species based on body color and the barcode of one specimen. Because those specimens are not from Mesoamerica, they will be dealt with elsewhere. Apanteles christianzunigai Fern dez-Triana, sp. n. http://zoobank.org/7E1ED712-0B24-443C-9663-683070D45C9B http://species-id.net/wiki/Apanteles_christianzunigai Figs 105, 277 Apanteles Rodriguez86 (Smith et al. 2006). Interim name provided by the authors. Type locality. COSTA RICA, Guanacaste, ACG, Sector Pitilla, Sendero Trichoptera, 655m, 10.98571, -85.41869. Holotype. in CNC. NVP-QAW039 site Specimen labels: 1. Voucher: D.H.Janzen W.Hallwachs, DB: http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu, Area de Conservaci Guanacaste, COSTA RICA, 09-SRNP-32760. 2. DHJPAR0039745. Paratypes. 3 , 1 (CNC, NMNH). COSTA RICA, ACG database codes: DHJPAR00215, DHJPAR0038242, DHJPAR0038323, DHJPAR0038349. Description. Female. Body color: body mostly dark except for some sternites which may be pale. Antenna color: scape, pedicel, and flagellum dark. Coxae color (pro-, meso-, metacoxa): dark, dark, dark. Femora color (pro-, meso-, metafemur): pale, dark, dark. Tibiae color (pro-, meso-, metatibia): pale, pale, anteriorly pale/posteriorly dark. Tegula and humeral complex color: tegula pale, humeral complex dark. Pterostigma color: dark. Fore wing veins color: mostly dark (a few veins ma.Early widening towards posterior margin. Mediotergite 1 sculpture: mostly sculptured, excavated area centrally with transverse striation inside and/or a polished knob centrally on posterior margin of mediotergite. Mediotergite 2 width at posterior margin/length: 3.2?.5. Mediotergite 2 sculpture: more or less fully sculptured, with longitudinal striation. Outer margin of hypopygium: with a wide, medially folded, transparent, semi esclerotized area; usually with 4 or more pleats. Ovipositor thickness: about same width throughout its length. Ovipositor sheaths length/metatibial length: 1.0?.1. Length of fore wing veins r/2RS: 1.7?.9. Length of fore wing veins 2RS/2M: 0.9?.0. Length of fore wing veins 2M/(RS+M)b: 0.9?.0. Pterostigma length/width: 2.1?.5. Point of insertion of vein r in pterostigma: about half way point length of pterostigma. Angle of vein r with fore wing anterior margin: more or less perpendicular to fore wing margin. Shape of junction of veins r and 2RS in fore wing: distinctly but not strongly angled. Male. Similar to female, except for shape of mediotergite 1 which is more rectangular, and coloration of meso and metafemur which tends to be darker in some specimens. Molecular data. Sequences in BOLD: 16, barcode compliant sequences: 15, haplotypes: 2. Biology/ecology. Gregarious. Mostly recorded from Lepidoptera species on stored products ts cosmopolitan distribution is likely due to human transfer from an unknown source. Hosts: Gelechiidae, Lasiocampidae, Lecithoceridae, Lymantriidae, Pyralidae, Thaumetopoeidae, Tineidae, Tortricidae, Zygaenidae. The correctness of some of these host records is questionable because it is unlikely that a single species has such a wide host range. Distribution. Cosmopolitan, this species has been recorded from 50 countries in all continents but there is no suggestion that it occurs in ACG.Review of Apanteles sensu stricto (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae)…Comments. The geographical coverage of the barcoded specimens includes Canada and New Zealand, but all sequences are almost identical. The only exceptions are some extralimital specimens (British Columbia, Canada) which seem to represent a different species based on body color and the barcode of one specimen. Because those specimens are not from Mesoamerica, they will be dealt with elsewhere. Apanteles christianzunigai Fern dez-Triana, sp. n. http://zoobank.org/7E1ED712-0B24-443C-9663-683070D45C9B http://species-id.net/wiki/Apanteles_christianzunigai Figs 105, 277 Apanteles Rodriguez86 (Smith et al. 2006). Interim name provided by the authors. Type locality. COSTA RICA, Guanacaste, ACG, Sector Pitilla, Sendero Trichoptera, 655m, 10.98571, -85.41869. Holotype. in CNC. Specimen labels: 1. Voucher: D.H.Janzen W.Hallwachs, DB: http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu, Area de Conservaci Guanacaste, COSTA RICA, 09-SRNP-32760. 2. DHJPAR0039745. Paratypes. 3 , 1 (CNC, NMNH). COSTA RICA, ACG database codes: DHJPAR00215, DHJPAR0038242, DHJPAR0038323, DHJPAR0038349. Description. Female. Body color: body mostly dark except for some sternites which may be pale. Antenna color: scape, pedicel, and flagellum dark. Coxae color (pro-, meso-, metacoxa): dark, dark, dark. Femora color (pro-, meso-, metafemur): pale, dark, dark. Tibiae color (pro-, meso-, metatibia): pale, pale, anteriorly pale/posteriorly dark. Tegula and humeral complex color: tegula pale, humeral complex dark. Pterostigma color: dark. Fore wing veins color: mostly dark (a few veins ma.

Esses were minimal; for instance, the range of images for the

Esses were minimal; for instance, the range of images for the collages specified by the researchers was large enough to not hamper creative inclinations. All but one of the workshop participants met the expressive art activities with immediate enthusiasm. In her post-workshop interview, one expressed reservations about her `artistic’ abilities. She reported that during the workshop she had felt her abilities were not as well honed as those of the other women. At the same time, she found the experience of producing her collage and installation to be `very powerful’ (A#4). Others noted the general level of eagerness and energetic participation among the group members: `there was nobody that didn’t want to come to my display, did you see anybody that held back? No, it was “here I go, zoom!”‘ (A#3). Apart from the one woman who initially hesitated, the group SB 202190MedChemExpress SB 202190 seized upon the activities, accepting the premise of the popular art forms: the only required expertise was their lived experience, not the technical aspects of the artistic creation. In the post-workshop interviews, the women reflected on the communicative power of the art forms used in the workshops. `When we did the collages and you got together and it amazed me how people had put such thought and pulled symbols that hit you immediately. … how people chose to express themselves … they told stories … it hit you with all your senses because it was visual, there was audio, you could feel it’. (A#3). The images of the collages and installations made it possible for the women to express the unsayable. The images `spoke’ for themselves, some quite loudly. Some images were quite literal, which strengthened their representational power. When assembling her installation at home (TAPI-2 cost Figure 1), one participant recalled asking herself, `How do I see my life now?’ She turned to compression sleeves, which she thought `are so icky, so maybe I should put a couple of my new sleeves on there. But then I thought, “No, this is what it’s like. They get this way’. Therefore, the installation is `like hanging up my dirty laundry. My life every day. It’s thinking about my boob, what I’m going to wear today, how I can make it comfortable … every day I’m reminded of cancer … . The installation is what life is, represented by the icky sleeves, and what it would have been but can’t be anymore, represented by the new sleeves’. A woman’s arm took prominence in one collage (Figure 2) by its placement in the centre, its three-dimensionality and disproportionately large size relative to300 ?2014 Macmillan Publishers Ltd. 1477-8211 Social Theory Health Vol. 12, 3, 291?Aesthetic rationality of the popular expressive artsFigure 1: Sleeve installation.Figure 2: Protruding arm collage.its associated body. The `large’ arm was cut out from one picture and glued onto a different body to protrude outwards from the collage. The open-endedness of the images’ interpretability provided safety for the women to discuss subjects that might otherwise be difficult. Several commented on feelings of safety in the discussions focused on the creations: `they bring out some very private thoughts that you probably wouldn’t share otherwise … and?2014 Macmillan Publishers Ltd. 1477-8211 Social Theory Health Vol. 12, 3, 291?12Quinlan et alwe have the right to express it or not express it or take it out if we choose, if it doesn’t fit we can take it out so, you know there’s some safety’ (V#4). The collages and installations provok.Esses were minimal; for instance, the range of images for the collages specified by the researchers was large enough to not hamper creative inclinations. All but one of the workshop participants met the expressive art activities with immediate enthusiasm. In her post-workshop interview, one expressed reservations about her `artistic’ abilities. She reported that during the workshop she had felt her abilities were not as well honed as those of the other women. At the same time, she found the experience of producing her collage and installation to be `very powerful’ (A#4). Others noted the general level of eagerness and energetic participation among the group members: `there was nobody that didn’t want to come to my display, did you see anybody that held back? No, it was “here I go, zoom!”‘ (A#3). Apart from the one woman who initially hesitated, the group seized upon the activities, accepting the premise of the popular art forms: the only required expertise was their lived experience, not the technical aspects of the artistic creation. In the post-workshop interviews, the women reflected on the communicative power of the art forms used in the workshops. `When we did the collages and you got together and it amazed me how people had put such thought and pulled symbols that hit you immediately. … how people chose to express themselves … they told stories … it hit you with all your senses because it was visual, there was audio, you could feel it’. (A#3). The images of the collages and installations made it possible for the women to express the unsayable. The images `spoke’ for themselves, some quite loudly. Some images were quite literal, which strengthened their representational power. When assembling her installation at home (Figure 1), one participant recalled asking herself, `How do I see my life now?’ She turned to compression sleeves, which she thought `are so icky, so maybe I should put a couple of my new sleeves on there. But then I thought, “No, this is what it’s like. They get this way’. Therefore, the installation is `like hanging up my dirty laundry. My life every day. It’s thinking about my boob, what I’m going to wear today, how I can make it comfortable … every day I’m reminded of cancer … . The installation is what life is, represented by the icky sleeves, and what it would have been but can’t be anymore, represented by the new sleeves’. A woman’s arm took prominence in one collage (Figure 2) by its placement in the centre, its three-dimensionality and disproportionately large size relative to300 ?2014 Macmillan Publishers Ltd. 1477-8211 Social Theory Health Vol. 12, 3, 291?Aesthetic rationality of the popular expressive artsFigure 1: Sleeve installation.Figure 2: Protruding arm collage.its associated body. The `large’ arm was cut out from one picture and glued onto a different body to protrude outwards from the collage. The open-endedness of the images’ interpretability provided safety for the women to discuss subjects that might otherwise be difficult. Several commented on feelings of safety in the discussions focused on the creations: `they bring out some very private thoughts that you probably wouldn’t share otherwise … and?2014 Macmillan Publishers Ltd. 1477-8211 Social Theory Health Vol. 12, 3, 291?12Quinlan et alwe have the right to express it or not express it or take it out if we choose, if it doesn’t fit we can take it out so, you know there’s some safety’ (V#4). The collages and installations provok.