She had encountered women at her hospital clinic whom she identified

She had encountered women at her hospital clinic whom she identified as FSW. As she recalled, `There were a lot of xiaojie (FSW) in this city starting in the late 1980s. The sex industry reached its peak in the early 1990s, which was famous nationwide’. The Chinese Government began large-scale HIV intervention work around the year 2000 but had limited experience working with Valsartan/sacubitril web groups at high risk such as FSW. At this time, Dr Z began using her time outside of work to conduct door-to-door outreach in a remote area of the city that was famous for small roadside FSW venues. She recalled her shock at the large number and poor working conditions of these women. An essential catalyst for Dr Z in developing the JZ FSW programme also came in 2000 when she met with staff from Ziteng, a Hong Kong-based CBO working with FSW. Supported by Ziteng, Dr Z started her first independent project in 2003 providing HIV/STI education, condoms and STI treatment services to FSW through outreach work and referring them to the hospital clinic where she worked. However, these activities caused conflicts between Dr Z and her medical colleagues due to the stigmatising perception of xiaojie as women with bad moral reputations and because of the reduced service prices she charged these women. As a result, in 2005, Dr Z retired early from her state-owned hospital job and officially registered a POR-8MedChemExpress POR-8 clinic-based CBO co-funded by Ziteng and Oxfam Hong Kong to focus on intervention work among FSWs. She also persuaded three people from the government clinic where she had been working to join the new CBO: a retired hospital worker responsible for testing, an administrative and staff management specialist and a clinic nurse. In addition, one FSW with whom they had built a good relationship was trained to work as a part-time peer educator. Model shift: 2007 progress evaluation–During JZ’s programme development phase, the funding agencies (Ziteng and Oxfam) provided vital financial and technical support for the development of the community-based programme. The programme recognised that publically advocating for FSWs’ rights is politically sensitive in China and negotiation between non-profit organisations, communities and government is extremely rare. As such, the programme grounded its agenda in the local community and focused on providing services and mobilising FSWs and managers to address occupational health. Similar to most HIV/STI prevention and care efforts in China, JZ’s primary project activities began with standard health education, STI testing and treatment. However, a significant shift happened in 2007 after Ziteng conducted a progress evaluation. As Dr Z recalled: We thought we were doing a great job delivering health education material, condoms and providing STI treatment; we didn’t stigmatize these women, we made so many efforts and devoted ourselves to the work; but then the director of Ziteng critically pointed out that our work strategy was problematic. I was totally shocked, confused and saddened. I even cried …. They asked me how these interventionsGlob Public Health. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2016 August 01.Huang et al.Pageworked, what were the issues threatening women’s lives here …. They went out to do outreach work together with us, and used examples arising on-site to push us to think and notice how the issues such as violence or being robbed might influence women’s acceptance of health education …. They also pushed me to talk with women a.She had encountered women at her hospital clinic whom she identified as FSW. As she recalled, `There were a lot of xiaojie (FSW) in this city starting in the late 1980s. The sex industry reached its peak in the early 1990s, which was famous nationwide’. The Chinese Government began large-scale HIV intervention work around the year 2000 but had limited experience working with groups at high risk such as FSW. At this time, Dr Z began using her time outside of work to conduct door-to-door outreach in a remote area of the city that was famous for small roadside FSW venues. She recalled her shock at the large number and poor working conditions of these women. An essential catalyst for Dr Z in developing the JZ FSW programme also came in 2000 when she met with staff from Ziteng, a Hong Kong-based CBO working with FSW. Supported by Ziteng, Dr Z started her first independent project in 2003 providing HIV/STI education, condoms and STI treatment services to FSW through outreach work and referring them to the hospital clinic where she worked. However, these activities caused conflicts between Dr Z and her medical colleagues due to the stigmatising perception of xiaojie as women with bad moral reputations and because of the reduced service prices she charged these women. As a result, in 2005, Dr Z retired early from her state-owned hospital job and officially registered a clinic-based CBO co-funded by Ziteng and Oxfam Hong Kong to focus on intervention work among FSWs. She also persuaded three people from the government clinic where she had been working to join the new CBO: a retired hospital worker responsible for testing, an administrative and staff management specialist and a clinic nurse. In addition, one FSW with whom they had built a good relationship was trained to work as a part-time peer educator. Model shift: 2007 progress evaluation–During JZ’s programme development phase, the funding agencies (Ziteng and Oxfam) provided vital financial and technical support for the development of the community-based programme. The programme recognised that publically advocating for FSWs’ rights is politically sensitive in China and negotiation between non-profit organisations, communities and government is extremely rare. As such, the programme grounded its agenda in the local community and focused on providing services and mobilising FSWs and managers to address occupational health. Similar to most HIV/STI prevention and care efforts in China, JZ’s primary project activities began with standard health education, STI testing and treatment. However, a significant shift happened in 2007 after Ziteng conducted a progress evaluation. As Dr Z recalled: We thought we were doing a great job delivering health education material, condoms and providing STI treatment; we didn’t stigmatize these women, we made so many efforts and devoted ourselves to the work; but then the director of Ziteng critically pointed out that our work strategy was problematic. I was totally shocked, confused and saddened. I even cried …. They asked me how these interventionsGlob Public Health. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2016 August 01.Huang et al.Pageworked, what were the issues threatening women’s lives here …. They went out to do outreach work together with us, and used examples arising on-site to push us to think and notice how the issues such as violence or being robbed might influence women’s acceptance of health education …. They also pushed me to talk with women a.

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