Omeostasis: proopiomelanocortin peptide (POMC) neurons, and neurons coexpressing NPY/AgRP/GABA

Omeostasis: proopiomelanocortin peptide (POMC) neurons, and neurons coexpressing NPY/AgRP/GABA (NAG). NAG neurons are considered critical regulators of feeding and food-seeking behavior (Krashes et al., 2011; Atasoy et al., 2012). Conversely, ablation of NAG neurons in adulthood leads to starvation by a suppression of food consumption (Gropp et al., 2005; Luquet et al., 2005). Activation of POMC neurons in mice, however, suppresses feeding and reduces body weight (Aponte et al., 2011). Both NAG and POMC neurons send axonal projections into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) to regulate food intake (Jobst et al., 2004). Recent studies using optogenetics and pharmacogenetics have supported this hypothesis; for example, activation of NAG neurons led to rapid stimulation of feeding through its actions in the PVH (Atasoy et al., 2012; Krashes et al., 2013). It is well understood that NAG neurons are regulated by hormones, nutrient signals, and synaptic transmission. NAG neuReceived Jan. 7, 2015; revised April 7, 2015; accepted April 29, 2015. Author contributions: A.F.B., M.S.S., and K.L.G. designed research; A.F.B., M.A.K., K.B., and S.J.L. performed research; A.F.B., K.B., M.S.S., and K.L.G. contributed unpublished reagents/analytic tools; A.F.B., K.C.B., S.J.L., M.S.S., and K.L.G. analyzed data; A.F.B., M.A.K., K.C.B., M.S.S., and K.L.G. wrote the paper. This work was supported by Grants P51 OD011092 (ONPRC), R01 HD014643 (M.S.S.), and R01 DK079194 (K.L.G.), and the American Diabetes Association Grant 7-13-MI-06 (A.F.B., K.L.G.). We thank Dr Anda Cornea, and the Imaging and Morphology Core for advice in image analysis. The authors declare no competing financial interests. Correspondence should be addressed to Dr Arian F. Baquero, Division of Diabetes, Obesity, Metabolism, Oregon National Primate Research Center, 505 NW 185 th INK1117 chemical information Avenue, L584, Beaverton, OR 97006-3448. E-mail: [email protected] DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0058-15.2015 Copyright ?2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/358558-12 15.00/rons receive direct GABAergic (inhibitory) and glutamatergic (excitatory) inputs from others areas of the hypothalamus (Vong et al., 2011; Krashes et al., 2014). Recent evidence suggests that regulation of synaptic transmission onto NAG neurons plays a role in the central control of energy homeostasis (Zeltser et al., 2012). For instance, during fasting, glutamatergic inputs onto NAG neurons are increased to provide an orexigenic drive. As energy replenishment occurs, the number of EPSCs and dendritic spines is reduced in NAG neurons (Yang et al., 2011; Liu et al., 2012). These data suggest that nutrients and hormones can change firing rates of NAG neurons to regulate feeding behavior and body weight. Indeed, leptin-deficient mice have an increase in EPSCs onto NAG neurons (Pinto et al., 2004). Furthermore, synaptic inputs onto NAG neurons are decreased by chronic consumption of calorically dense diets (Horvath et al., 2010). Although modulation of synaptic transmission can alter the function of NAG neurons in the adult, the question remains as to what happens during development. Pups make a transition from BMS-5 web suckling to autonomic feeding behavior during postnatal development. Around P13, rodents initiate ingestion of solid food, and by P21 they are capable of sustaining independent feeding behavior (Swithers, 2003). In the present study, we characterized synaptic inputs onto NAG neurons during these critical periods of development. We also i.Omeostasis: proopiomelanocortin peptide (POMC) neurons, and neurons coexpressing NPY/AgRP/GABA (NAG). NAG neurons are considered critical regulators of feeding and food-seeking behavior (Krashes et al., 2011; Atasoy et al., 2012). Conversely, ablation of NAG neurons in adulthood leads to starvation by a suppression of food consumption (Gropp et al., 2005; Luquet et al., 2005). Activation of POMC neurons in mice, however, suppresses feeding and reduces body weight (Aponte et al., 2011). Both NAG and POMC neurons send axonal projections into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) to regulate food intake (Jobst et al., 2004). Recent studies using optogenetics and pharmacogenetics have supported this hypothesis; for example, activation of NAG neurons led to rapid stimulation of feeding through its actions in the PVH (Atasoy et al., 2012; Krashes et al., 2013). It is well understood that NAG neurons are regulated by hormones, nutrient signals, and synaptic transmission. NAG neuReceived Jan. 7, 2015; revised April 7, 2015; accepted April 29, 2015. Author contributions: A.F.B., M.S.S., and K.L.G. designed research; A.F.B., M.A.K., K.B., and S.J.L. performed research; A.F.B., K.B., M.S.S., and K.L.G. contributed unpublished reagents/analytic tools; A.F.B., K.C.B., S.J.L., M.S.S., and K.L.G. analyzed data; A.F.B., M.A.K., K.C.B., M.S.S., and K.L.G. wrote the paper. This work was supported by Grants P51 OD011092 (ONPRC), R01 HD014643 (M.S.S.), and R01 DK079194 (K.L.G.), and the American Diabetes Association Grant 7-13-MI-06 (A.F.B., K.L.G.). We thank Dr Anda Cornea, and the Imaging and Morphology Core for advice in image analysis. The authors declare no competing financial interests. Correspondence should be addressed to Dr Arian F. Baquero, Division of Diabetes, Obesity, Metabolism, Oregon National Primate Research Center, 505 NW 185 th Avenue, L584, Beaverton, OR 97006-3448. E-mail: [email protected] DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0058-15.2015 Copyright ?2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/358558-12 15.00/rons receive direct GABAergic (inhibitory) and glutamatergic (excitatory) inputs from others areas of the hypothalamus (Vong et al., 2011; Krashes et al., 2014). Recent evidence suggests that regulation of synaptic transmission onto NAG neurons plays a role in the central control of energy homeostasis (Zeltser et al., 2012). For instance, during fasting, glutamatergic inputs onto NAG neurons are increased to provide an orexigenic drive. As energy replenishment occurs, the number of EPSCs and dendritic spines is reduced in NAG neurons (Yang et al., 2011; Liu et al., 2012). These data suggest that nutrients and hormones can change firing rates of NAG neurons to regulate feeding behavior and body weight. Indeed, leptin-deficient mice have an increase in EPSCs onto NAG neurons (Pinto et al., 2004). Furthermore, synaptic inputs onto NAG neurons are decreased by chronic consumption of calorically dense diets (Horvath et al., 2010). Although modulation of synaptic transmission can alter the function of NAG neurons in the adult, the question remains as to what happens during development. Pups make a transition from suckling to autonomic feeding behavior during postnatal development. Around P13, rodents initiate ingestion of solid food, and by P21 they are capable of sustaining independent feeding behavior (Swithers, 2003). In the present study, we characterized synaptic inputs onto NAG neurons during these critical periods of development. We also i.

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