, and carbohydrates, and have been implicated in various diseases and aging.

, and carbohydrates, and have been implicated in various diseases and aging.203,207,208 Many of these species are highly reactive withChem Rev. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 December 8.Warren et al.Pageorganic molecules, making it difficult to study their chemistry in non-aqueous solvents. However, the aqueous thermochemistry of oxygen species has been studied extensively, and has been reviewed by Sawyer209 and Afanas’ev.210 The properties of the species without an O bond have been summarized above; the PCET thermochemistry of the O bonded species are given in Table 9 and Figure 6. The Pourbaix diagram for water (Figure 6c) does not show most of the reactive oxygen species. This is because, other than H2O2 and HO2-, the ROS are not the most thermodynamically stable species at any point in the diagram, at any pH or redox potential. The standard (pH 0) potential for the 4 e-/4 H+ reduction of O2 is always given as 1.23 V (eq 17) but from some perspectives it can be better to think about O2 reduction or water oxidation as transferring hydrogen atoms. The free energy in these terms, following eqs 15 or 16 above, is given in eq 18 both for the full 4 e-/4 H+ process and per hydrogen atom, as an GGTI298 biological activity effective BDFE. Thus, oxidizing water to O2, requires a `system’ with an effective BDFE of greater than 86 kcal mol-1. Such a system could be a hydrogen atom abstracting reagent, or a combination of an oxidant and a base (Section 5.9 below). In photosystem II, the oxidizing equivalents pass through the HS-173 supplier tyrosine/tyrosyl radical couple which in aqueous solution has a BDFE of 87.8 kcal mol-1 from Table 4. While this BDFE could be different within the protein, it shows that the tyrosyl radical has just enough free energy to accomplish water oxidation and shows the remarkable catalytic activity of the oxygen evolving complex at low ARA290 custom synthesis overpotential.(17)NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript(18)5.4.2 Dioxygen–While the overall proton-coupled reduction of O2 to water is quite favorable, transfer of the first electron is far less favorable. Dioxygen is a poor one-electron outer-sphere oxidant, with E?for reduction to superoxide (O2?) = -0.16 V vs. NHE in H2O.209 Superoxide is also not very basic (aqueous pKa = 4.9), so this combination of a low potential and low pKa means that HO2?(hydroperoxyl) has a very low O BDFE, 60.4 kcal mol-1 in water. RR6 site because of this low BDFE, O2 is not an effective H-atom abstractor (so the large majority of organic purchase Thonzonium (bromide) molecules are `air stable’). It should be emphasized that H-atom abstracting ability typically correlates with the X BDFE that an oxidant can form and does not correlate with the `radical character’.211 Thus, dioxygen is a triplet diradical but is quite unreactive toward HAT, while permanganate (MnO4-) with no unpaired spins is a reactive H-atom abstractor because it can form an O bond with a BDFE of 80.7 kcal mol-1 (Section 5.10). In contrast, oxene (O), a neutral triplet radical like O2, is a far more potent H-atom abstractor because of the high BDFE of , 106.9 kcal mol-1 (Table 8). 5.4.3 Superoxide/Hydroperoxyl–Superoxide radical anion (O2?) and its protonated form (the neutral perhydroxyl radical, HO2? are considered reactive oxygen species but do not Luteolin 7-O-��-D-glucoside web undergo the chemistry typical of oxygen radicals.212 Superoxide generally does not act as a direct one electron oxidant due to the relatively high energy of the solvated peroxide dianion (O22-).213 Similarly, O2? does., and carbohydrates, and have been implicated in various diseases and aging.203,207,208 Many of these species are highly reactive withChem Rev. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 December 8.Warren et al.Pageorganic molecules, making it difficult to study their chemistry in non-aqueous solvents. However, the aqueous thermochemistry of oxygen species has been studied extensively, and has been reviewed by Sawyer209 and Afanas’ev.210 The properties of the species without an O bond have been summarized above; the PCET thermochemistry of the O bonded species are given in Table 9 and Figure 6. The Pourbaix diagram for water (Figure 6c) does not show most of the reactive oxygen species. This is because, other than H2O2 and HO2-, the ROS are not the most thermodynamically stable species at any point in the diagram, at any pH or redox potential. The standard (pH 0) potential for the 4 e-/4 H+ reduction of O2 is always given as 1.23 V (eq 17) but from some perspectives it can be better to think about O2 reduction or water oxidation as transferring hydrogen atoms. The free energy in these terms, following eqs 15 or 16 above, is given in eq 18 both for the full 4 e-/4 H+ process and per hydrogen atom, as an effective BDFE. Thus, oxidizing water to O2, requires a `system’ with an effective BDFE of greater than 86 kcal mol-1. Such a system could be a hydrogen atom abstracting reagent, or a combination of an oxidant and a base (Section 5.9 below). In photosystem II, the oxidizing equivalents pass through the tyrosine/tyrosyl radical couple which in aqueous solution has a BDFE of 87.8 kcal mol-1 from Table 4. While this BDFE could be different within the protein, it shows that the tyrosyl radical has just enough free energy to accomplish water oxidation and shows the remarkable catalytic activity of the oxygen evolving complex at low overpotential.(17)NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript(18)5.4.2 Dioxygen–While the overall proton-coupled reduction of O2 to water is quite favorable, transfer of the first electron is far less favorable. Dioxygen is a poor one-electron outer-sphere oxidant, with E?for reduction to superoxide (O2?) = -0.16 V vs. NHE in H2O.209 Superoxide is also not very basic (aqueous pKa = 4.9), so this combination of a low potential and low pKa means that HO2?(hydroperoxyl) has a very low O BDFE, 60.4 kcal mol-1 in water. Because of this low BDFE, O2 is not an effective H-atom abstractor (so the large majority of organic molecules are `air stable’). It should be emphasized that H-atom abstracting ability typically correlates with the X BDFE that an oxidant can form and does not correlate with the `radical character’.211 Thus, dioxygen is a triplet diradical but is quite unreactive toward HAT, while permanganate (MnO4-) with no unpaired spins is a reactive H-atom abstractor because it can form an O bond with a BDFE of 80.7 kcal mol-1 (Section 5.10). In contrast, oxene (O), a neutral triplet radical like O2, is a far more potent H-atom abstractor because of the high BDFE of , 106.9 kcal mol-1 (Table 8). 5.4.3 Superoxide/Hydroperoxyl–Superoxide radical anion (O2?) and its protonated form (the neutral perhydroxyl radical, HO2? are considered reactive oxygen species but do not undergo the chemistry typical of oxygen radicals.212 Superoxide generally does not act as a direct one electron oxidant due to the relatively high energy of the solvated peroxide dianion (O22-).213 Similarly, O2? does., and carbohydrates, and have been implicated in various diseases and aging.203,207,208 Many of these species are highly reactive withChem Rev. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 December 8.Warren et al.Pageorganic molecules, making it difficult to study their chemistry in non-aqueous solvents. However, the aqueous thermochemistry of oxygen species has been studied extensively, and has been reviewed by Sawyer209 and Afanas’ev.210 The properties of the species without an O bond have been summarized above; the PCET thermochemistry of the O bonded species are given in Table 9 and Figure 6. The Pourbaix diagram for water (Figure 6c) does not show most of the reactive oxygen species. This is because, other than H2O2 and HO2-, the ROS are not the most thermodynamically stable species at any point in the diagram, at any pH or redox potential. The standard (pH 0) potential for the 4 e-/4 H+ reduction of O2 is always given as 1.23 V (eq 17) but from some perspectives it can be better to think about O2 reduction or water oxidation as transferring hydrogen atoms. The free energy in these terms, following eqs 15 or 16 above, is given in eq 18 both for the full 4 e-/4 H+ process and per hydrogen atom, as an effective BDFE. Thus, oxidizing water to O2, requires a `system’ with an effective BDFE of greater than 86 kcal mol-1. Such a system could be a hydrogen atom abstracting reagent, or a combination of an oxidant and a base (Section 5.9 below). In photosystem II, the oxidizing equivalents pass through the tyrosine/tyrosyl radical couple which in aqueous solution has a BDFE of 87.8 kcal mol-1 from Table 4. While this BDFE could be different within the protein, it shows that the tyrosyl radical has just enough free energy to accomplish water oxidation and shows the remarkable catalytic activity of the oxygen evolving complex at low overpotential.(17)NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript(18)5.4.2 Dioxygen–While the overall proton-coupled reduction of O2 to water is quite favorable, transfer of the first electron is far less favorable. Dioxygen is a poor one-electron outer-sphere oxidant, with E?for reduction to superoxide (O2?) = -0.16 V vs. NHE in H2O.209 Superoxide is also not very basic (aqueous pKa = 4.9), so this combination of a low potential and low pKa means that HO2?(hydroperoxyl) has a very low O BDFE, 60.4 kcal mol-1 in water. Because of this low BDFE, O2 is not an effective H-atom abstractor (so the large majority of organic molecules are `air stable’). It should be emphasized that H-atom abstracting ability typically correlates with the X BDFE that an oxidant can form and does not correlate with the `radical character’.211 Thus, dioxygen is a triplet diradical but is quite unreactive toward HAT, while permanganate (MnO4-) with no unpaired spins is a reactive H-atom abstractor because it can form an O bond with a BDFE of 80.7 kcal mol-1 (Section 5.10). In contrast, oxene (O), a neutral triplet radical like O2, is a far more potent H-atom abstractor because of the high BDFE of , 106.9 kcal mol-1 (Table 8). 5.4.3 Superoxide/Hydroperoxyl–Superoxide radical anion (O2?) and its protonated form (the neutral perhydroxyl radical, HO2? are considered reactive oxygen species but do not undergo the chemistry typical of oxygen radicals.212 Superoxide generally does not act as a direct one electron oxidant due to the relatively high energy of the solvated peroxide dianion (O22-).213 Similarly, O2? does., and carbohydrates, and have been implicated in various diseases and aging.203,207,208 Many of these species are highly reactive withChem Rev. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 December 8.Warren et al.Pageorganic molecules, making it difficult to study their chemistry in non-aqueous solvents. However, the aqueous thermochemistry of oxygen species has been studied extensively, and has been reviewed by Sawyer209 and Afanas’ev.210 The properties of the species without an O bond have been summarized above; the PCET thermochemistry of the O bonded species are given in Table 9 and Figure 6. The Pourbaix diagram for water (Figure 6c) does not show most of the reactive oxygen species. This is because, other than H2O2 and HO2-, the ROS are not the most thermodynamically stable species at any point in the diagram, at any pH or redox potential. The standard (pH 0) potential for the 4 e-/4 H+ reduction of O2 is always given as 1.23 V (eq 17) but from some perspectives it can be better to think about O2 reduction or water oxidation as transferring hydrogen atoms. The free energy in these terms, following eqs 15 or 16 above, is given in eq 18 both for the full 4 e-/4 H+ process and per hydrogen atom, as an effective BDFE. Thus, oxidizing water to O2, requires a `system’ with an effective BDFE of greater than 86 kcal mol-1. Such a system could be a hydrogen atom abstracting reagent, or a combination of an oxidant and a base (Section 5.9 below). In photosystem II, the oxidizing equivalents pass through the tyrosine/tyrosyl radical couple which in aqueous solution has a BDFE of 87.8 kcal mol-1 from Table 4. While this BDFE could be different within the protein, it shows that the tyrosyl radical has just enough free energy to accomplish water oxidation and shows the remarkable catalytic activity of the oxygen evolving complex at low overpotential.(17)NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript(18)5.4.2 Dioxygen–While the overall proton-coupled reduction of O2 to water is quite favorable, transfer of the first electron is far less favorable. Dioxygen is a poor one-electron outer-sphere oxidant, with E?for reduction to superoxide (O2?) = -0.16 V vs. NHE in H2O.209 Superoxide is also not very basic (aqueous pKa = 4.9), so this combination of a low potential and low pKa means that HO2?(hydroperoxyl) has a very low O BDFE, 60.4 kcal mol-1 in water. Because of this low BDFE, O2 is not an effective H-atom abstractor (so the large majority of organic molecules are `air stable’). It should be emphasized that H-atom abstracting ability typically correlates with the X BDFE that an oxidant can form and does not correlate with the `radical character’.211 Thus, dioxygen is a triplet diradical but is quite unreactive toward HAT, while permanganate (MnO4-) with no unpaired spins is a reactive H-atom abstractor because it can form an O bond with a BDFE of 80.7 kcal mol-1 (Section 5.10). In contrast, oxene (O), a neutral triplet radical like O2, is a far more potent H-atom abstractor because of the high BDFE of , 106.9 kcal mol-1 (Table 8). 5.4.3 Superoxide/Hydroperoxyl–Superoxide radical anion (O2?) and its protonated form (the neutral perhydroxyl radical, HO2? are considered reactive oxygen species but do not undergo the chemistry typical of oxygen radicals.212 Superoxide generally does not act as a direct one electron oxidant due to the relatively high energy of the solvated peroxide dianion (O22-).213 Similarly, O2? does., and carbohydrates, and have been implicated in various diseases and aging.203,207,208 Many of these species are highly reactive withChem Rev. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 December 8.Warren et al.Pageorganic molecules, making it difficult to study their chemistry in non-aqueous solvents. However, the aqueous thermochemistry of oxygen species has been studied extensively, and has been reviewed by Sawyer209 and Afanas’ev.210 The properties of the species without an O bond have been summarized above; the PCET thermochemistry of the O bonded species are given in Table 9 and Figure 6. The Pourbaix diagram for water (Figure 6c) does not show most of the reactive oxygen species. This is because, other than H2O2 and HO2-, the ROS are not the most thermodynamically stable species at any point in the diagram, at any pH or redox potential. The standard (pH 0) potential for the 4 e-/4 H+ reduction of O2 is always given as 1.23 V (eq 17) but from some perspectives it can be better to think about O2 reduction or water oxidation as transferring hydrogen atoms. The free energy in these terms, following eqs 15 or 16 above, is given in eq 18 both for the full 4 e-/4 H+ process and per hydrogen atom, as an effective BDFE. Thus, oxidizing water to O2, requires a `system’ with an effective BDFE of greater than 86 kcal mol-1. Such a system could be a hydrogen atom abstracting reagent, or a combination of an oxidant and a base (Section 5.9 below). In photosystem II, the oxidizing equivalents pass through the tyrosine/tyrosyl radical couple which in aqueous solution has a BDFE of 87.8 kcal mol-1 from Table 4. While this BDFE could be different within the protein, it shows that the tyrosyl radical has just enough free energy to accomplish water oxidation and shows the remarkable catalytic activity of the oxygen evolving complex at low overpotential.(17)NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript(18)5.4.2 Dioxygen–While the overall proton-coupled reduction of O2 to water is quite favorable, transfer of the first electron is far less favorable. Dioxygen is a poor one-electron outer-sphere oxidant, with E?for reduction to superoxide (O2?) = -0.16 V vs. NHE in H2O.209 Superoxide is also not very basic (aqueous pKa = 4.9), so this combination of a low potential and low pKa means that HO2?(hydroperoxyl) has a very low O BDFE, 60.4 kcal mol-1 in water. Because of this low BDFE, O2 is not an effective H-atom abstractor (so the large majority of organic molecules are `air stable’). It should be emphasized that H-atom abstracting ability typically correlates with the X BDFE that an oxidant can form and does not correlate with the `radical character’.211 Thus, dioxygen is a triplet diradical but is quite unreactive toward HAT, while permanganate (MnO4-) with no unpaired spins is a reactive H-atom abstractor because it can form an O bond with a BDFE of 80.7 kcal mol-1 (Section 5.10). In contrast, oxene (O), a neutral triplet radical like O2, is a far more potent H-atom abstractor because of the high BDFE of , 106.9 kcal mol-1 (Table 8). 5.4.3 Superoxide/Hydroperoxyl–Superoxide radical anion (O2?) and its protonated form (the neutral perhydroxyl radical, HO2? are considered reactive oxygen species but do not undergo the chemistry typical of oxygen radicals.212 Superoxide generally does not act as a direct one electron oxidant due to the relatively high energy of the solvated peroxide dianion (O22-).213 Similarly, O2? does., and carbohydrates, and have been implicated in various diseases and aging.203,207,208 Many of these species are highly reactive withChem Rev. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 December 8.Warren et al.Pageorganic molecules, making it difficult to study their chemistry in non-aqueous solvents. However, the aqueous thermochemistry of oxygen species has been studied extensively, and has been reviewed by Sawyer209 and Afanas’ev.210 The properties of the species without an O bond have been summarized above; the PCET thermochemistry of the O bonded species are given in Table 9 and Figure 6. The Pourbaix diagram for water (Figure 6c) does not show most of the reactive oxygen species. This is because, other than H2O2 and HO2-, the ROS are not the most thermodynamically stable species at any point in the diagram, at any pH or redox potential. The standard (pH 0) potential for the 4 e-/4 H+ reduction of O2 is always given as 1.23 V (eq 17) but from some perspectives it can be better to think about O2 reduction or water oxidation as transferring hydrogen atoms. The free energy in these terms, following eqs 15 or 16 above, is given in eq 18 both for the full 4 e-/4 H+ process and per hydrogen atom, as an effective BDFE. Thus, oxidizing water to O2, requires a `system’ with an effective BDFE of greater than 86 kcal mol-1. Such a system could be a hydrogen atom abstracting reagent, or a combination of an oxidant and a base (Section 5.9 below). In photosystem II, the oxidizing equivalents pass through the tyrosine/tyrosyl radical couple which in aqueous solution has a BDFE of 87.8 kcal mol-1 from Table 4. While this BDFE could be different within the protein, it shows that the tyrosyl radical has just enough free energy to accomplish water oxidation and shows the remarkable catalytic activity of the oxygen evolving complex at low overpotential.(17)NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript(18)5.4.2 Dioxygen–While the overall proton-coupled reduction of O2 to water is quite favorable, transfer of the first electron is far less favorable. Dioxygen is a poor one-electron outer-sphere oxidant, with E?for reduction to superoxide (O2?) = -0.16 V vs. NHE in H2O.209 Superoxide is also not very basic (aqueous pKa = 4.9), so this combination of a low potential and low pKa means that HO2?(hydroperoxyl) has a very low O BDFE, 60.4 kcal mol-1 in water. Because of this low BDFE, O2 is not an effective H-atom abstractor (so the large majority of organic molecules are `air stable’). It should be emphasized that H-atom abstracting ability typically correlates with the X BDFE that an oxidant can form and does not correlate with the `radical character’.211 Thus, dioxygen is a triplet diradical but is quite unreactive toward HAT, while permanganate (MnO4-) with no unpaired spins is a reactive H-atom abstractor because it can form an O bond with a BDFE of 80.7 kcal mol-1 (Section 5.10). In contrast, oxene (O), a neutral triplet radical like O2, is a far more potent H-atom abstractor because of the high BDFE of , 106.9 kcal mol-1 (Table 8). 5.4.3 Superoxide/Hydroperoxyl–Superoxide radical anion (O2?) and its protonated form (the neutral perhydroxyl radical, HO2? are considered reactive oxygen species but do not undergo the chemistry typical of oxygen radicals.212 Superoxide generally does not act as a direct one electron oxidant due to the relatively high energy of the solvated peroxide dianion (O22-).213 Similarly, O2? does.

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