Ar plates, they must obtain nutrients from phagocytosed bacteria. This amoeboid

Ar plates, they must obtain nutrients from phagocytosed bacteria. This amoeboid grazing behavior on bacteria results in the formation of plaques lear zones in the bacterial lawn that are devoid of bacteria [25]. The T6SS mediates bacterial virulence towards D. discoideum and abrogates plaque formation. Wild-type V52 and Klebsiella pneumoniae were used as virulent (no plaques) and avirulent (plaque formation) controls, respectively. Smooth isolates DL4211 and DL4215 killed D. discoideum at levels comparable 25033180 to V52. In contrast, rough DL2111 and DL2112 did not kill D. discoideum similar to the T6SS-null mutant V52DvasK and the avirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae negative control (Figure 2).Figure 6. VasH complementation restores Hcp synthesis but not secretion in rough RGVC isolates. V. cholerae isolates were transformed with pBAD18-vasH::myc. The isolates were cultured to midlogarithmic phase of growth in the presence or absence of 0.1 arabinose. Pellets and culture supernatants were separated by centrifugation. The supernatant portions were concentrated by TCA precipitation and both fractions were subjected to SDS-PAGE followed by western blotting using the antibodies indicated. Data are representative of three independent experiments. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048320.gExpression of Hcp in RGVC IsolatesNext, we set out to test whether RGVC isolates were able to produce and secrete the T6SS hallmark protein Hcp because experimental results presented thus far suggested that V. cholerae’s ability to kill bacterial competitors or eukaryotic predators [6] could be mediated by the T6SS. As shown in Figure 3, smooth isolates DL4211 and DL4215 produced Hcp at sufficient levels to be detected by western blots probed with Hcp antiserum. In contrast, rough isolates did not produce or secrete Hcp. TheCompetition Mechanisms of V. choleraeFigure 7. RGVC isolates kill bacterial neighbors. V. cholerae and prey bacteria were mixed in a 10:1 ratio and incubated on K YTSS agar for 4 hours at 30uC. Bacterial spots were resuspended, serially diluted, and plated on selective YTSS agar to determine the number of surviving prey. The average and purchase Genz-644282 standard deviations of three independent experiments, each performed in duplicates, are shown. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048320.gpresence of Hcp GS-7340 correlated with virulence as the smooth isolates secreted Hcp (Figure 3) and killed E. coli (Figure 1) as well as D. discoideum (Figure 2), while rough isolates did not produce Hcp and appeared to be attenuated.RGVC Isolates Engage in T6SS-Mediated Secretion and VirulenceTo determine whether killing of E. coli (Figure 1) and D. discoideum (Figure 2) depends on a functional T6SS, we performed killing assays and plaque assays with DL4211DvasK and DL4215DvasK as a predator. VasK is an inner membrane protein believed to provide the energy for T6SS-mediated secretion[26,27]. VasK is, therefore, crucial for a functional T6SS. As shown in figure 4A, parental V52, DL4211, and DL4215 constitutively produced and secreted Hcp, while deletion of vasK blocked secretion but not synthesis of Hcp. To complement the vasK chromosomal deletion, vasK from V52 was cloned downstream of an arabinose-inducible promoter in the plasmid pBAD24 and introduced into DL4211DvasK (DL4211DvasK/ pvasK) and DL4215DvasK (DL4215DvasK/pvasK). Trans complementation of vasK restored Hcp secretion in V52 and the two smooth isolates (Figure 4A). To assess the role of T6SS in killing E. coli, we incubated E. coli with vari.Ar plates, they must obtain nutrients from phagocytosed bacteria. This amoeboid grazing behavior on bacteria results in the formation of plaques lear zones in the bacterial lawn that are devoid of bacteria [25]. The T6SS mediates bacterial virulence towards D. discoideum and abrogates plaque formation. Wild-type V52 and Klebsiella pneumoniae were used as virulent (no plaques) and avirulent (plaque formation) controls, respectively. Smooth isolates DL4211 and DL4215 killed D. discoideum at levels comparable 25033180 to V52. In contrast, rough DL2111 and DL2112 did not kill D. discoideum similar to the T6SS-null mutant V52DvasK and the avirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae negative control (Figure 2).Figure 6. VasH complementation restores Hcp synthesis but not secretion in rough RGVC isolates. V. cholerae isolates were transformed with pBAD18-vasH::myc. The isolates were cultured to midlogarithmic phase of growth in the presence or absence of 0.1 arabinose. Pellets and culture supernatants were separated by centrifugation. The supernatant portions were concentrated by TCA precipitation and both fractions were subjected to SDS-PAGE followed by western blotting using the antibodies indicated. Data are representative of three independent experiments. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048320.gExpression of Hcp in RGVC IsolatesNext, we set out to test whether RGVC isolates were able to produce and secrete the T6SS hallmark protein Hcp because experimental results presented thus far suggested that V. cholerae’s ability to kill bacterial competitors or eukaryotic predators [6] could be mediated by the T6SS. As shown in Figure 3, smooth isolates DL4211 and DL4215 produced Hcp at sufficient levels to be detected by western blots probed with Hcp antiserum. In contrast, rough isolates did not produce or secrete Hcp. TheCompetition Mechanisms of V. choleraeFigure 7. RGVC isolates kill bacterial neighbors. V. cholerae and prey bacteria were mixed in a 10:1 ratio and incubated on K YTSS agar for 4 hours at 30uC. Bacterial spots were resuspended, serially diluted, and plated on selective YTSS agar to determine the number of surviving prey. The average and standard deviations of three independent experiments, each performed in duplicates, are shown. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048320.gpresence of Hcp correlated with virulence as the smooth isolates secreted Hcp (Figure 3) and killed E. coli (Figure 1) as well as D. discoideum (Figure 2), while rough isolates did not produce Hcp and appeared to be attenuated.RGVC Isolates Engage in T6SS-Mediated Secretion and VirulenceTo determine whether killing of E. coli (Figure 1) and D. discoideum (Figure 2) depends on a functional T6SS, we performed killing assays and plaque assays with DL4211DvasK and DL4215DvasK as a predator. VasK is an inner membrane protein believed to provide the energy for T6SS-mediated secretion[26,27]. VasK is, therefore, crucial for a functional T6SS. As shown in figure 4A, parental V52, DL4211, and DL4215 constitutively produced and secreted Hcp, while deletion of vasK blocked secretion but not synthesis of Hcp. To complement the vasK chromosomal deletion, vasK from V52 was cloned downstream of an arabinose-inducible promoter in the plasmid pBAD24 and introduced into DL4211DvasK (DL4211DvasK/ pvasK) and DL4215DvasK (DL4215DvasK/pvasK). Trans complementation of vasK restored Hcp secretion in V52 and the two smooth isolates (Figure 4A). To assess the role of T6SS in killing E. coli, we incubated E. coli with vari.

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